Note: unique characterization possibilities in the ultra high vacuum scanning transmission x-ray microscope (UHV-STXM) "MAXYMUS" using a rotatable permanent magnetic field up to 0.22 T.
ABSTRACT Using the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect, the soft x-ray range provides powerful detection capabilities concerning element specific structural, chemical, and magnetic properties. We present the implementation of a variable 0.22 T magnet system based on permanent magnets into the new UHV scanning microscope "MAXYMUS" at HZB/BESSY II, allowing surface sensitive and simultaneous standard transmission microscopic investigations in a variable external magnetic field. The outstanding potential of these new investigation possibilities will be demonstrated showing the development of the magnetic domain structure concurrently at the surface and in the bulk, providing a profound understanding of fundamental mechanisms in coupled magnetic systems.
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ABSTRACT: An ultra-high vacuum compatible multipurpose chamber for magneto-optical reflection and transmission experiments with polarization analysis on magnetic systems is introduced. It is applicable in a broad photon energy range from the visible to the soft x-ray regime and for a wide angular range from grazing to normal incidence. It exploits a novel magnetization device based on rotating permanent magnets, which generates tuneable magnetic fields up to 570 mT in longitudinal, transverse and polar geometry. The unique combination of these features enables the feasibility of all typical magneto-optical spectroscopy techniques as T-MOKE, L-MOKE, P-MOKE, x-ray magneto optical linear dichroism, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in reflection and Kerr polarization-spectroscopy, which is demonstrated for Co with focus on the Co 3p edges.Applied Optics 06/2013; 52(18):4294-4310. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: By means of off-axis electron holography the local distribution of the magnetic induction within and around a poly-crystalline Permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film is studied. In addition the stray field above the sample is measured by magnetic force microscopy on a larger area. The film is deposited on a periodically nanostructured (rippled) Si substrate, which was formed by Xe+ ion beam erosion. This introduces the periodical ripple shape to the Permalloy film. The created ripple morphology is expected to modify the magnetization distribution within the Permalloy and to induce dipolar stray fields. These stray fields play an important role in spinwave dynamics of periodic nanostructures like magnonic crystals. Micromagnetic simulations estimate those stray fields in the order of only 10 mT. Consequently, their experimental determination at nanometer spatial resolution is highly demanding and requires advanced acquisition and reconstruction techniques such as electron holography. The reconstructed magnetic phase images show the magnetized thin film, in which the magnetization direction follows mainly the given morphology. Furthermore, a closer look to the Permalloy/carbon interface reveals stray fields at the detection limit of the method in the order of 10 mT, which is in qualitative agreement with the micromagnetic simulations.Small 07/2014; · 7.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report on an instrument for applying ac and dc magnetic fields by capturing the flux from a rotating permanent magnet and projecting it between two adjustable pole pieces. This can be an alternative to standard electromagnets for experiments with small samples or in probe stations in which an applied magnetic field is needed locally, with advantages that include a compact form-factor, very low power requirements and dissipation as well as fast field sweep rates. This flux capture instrument (FLUXCAP) can produce fields from -400 to +400 mT, with field resolution less than 1 mT. It generates static magnetic fields as well as ramped fields, with ramping rates as high as 10 T/s. We demonstrate the use of this apparatus for studying the magnetotransport properties of spin-valve nanopillars, a nanoscale device that exhibits giant magnetoresistance.The Review of scientific instruments 06/2013; 84(6):065101. · 1.52 Impact Factor