Biodiversity of the surface microbial consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit and Gubbeen cheese

DOI: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012 Publisher: ASM Press


Available from: Nagamani Bora, May 06, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Cheese ripening involves the activity of various bacteria, yeasts or molds, which contribute to the development of the typical color, flavor and texture of the final product. In situ measurements of gene expression are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the microbial flora activity in cheeses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the physiology and metabolic activity of Geotrichum candidum during the ripening of Reblochon-type cheeses by quantifying mRNA transcripts at various ripening times. The expression of 80 genes involved in various functions could be quantified with a correct level of biological repeatability using a set of three stable reference genes. As ripening progresses, a decrease in expression was observed for genes involved in cell wall organization, translation, vesicular mediated transport, and in cytoskeleton constituents and ribosomal protein genes. There was also a decrease in the expression of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase and plasma membrane H(+) ATPase genes. Some genes involved in the catabolism of lactate, acetate and ethanol were expressed to a greater extent at the beginning of ripening. During the second part of ripening, there was an increased expression of genes involved in the transport and catabolism of amino acids, which could be attributed to a change in the energy source. There was also an increase in the expression of genes involved in autophagy and of genes possibly involved in lifespan determination. Quantification of mRNA transcripts may also be used to produce bioindicators relevant for cheesemaking, for example when considering genes encoding enzymes involved in the catabolism of amino acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 11/2014; 194C:54-61. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.11.009 · 3.16 Impact Factor