Ancient science of life ??? Vol: XXI (4) April / 2002 ??? ????????????
ANTIMICROBIAL STUTIES OF SOME SELECTED
R.UDAYAKUMAR and V.HAZEENA BEGUM*
Dept. of Biochemistry, J.J.College of Arts & Science, Pudukkottai-622 404. Tamil Nadu, India.
*Dept. of Siddha Medicine faculty of science, Tamil university, Thanjvur-613 005., INDIA
Received : 18.06.2001
ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial activities were detected in the 80% ethanolic extract of Achyranthes
aspera, Ficus glomerata, Leucas aspera, Thespesia populnea and Zizyphus jujube against
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhi. The treatments resulted in the
formation of various inhibitory zones, in contrast to the control where no inhibitory zone was
A large number of Indian medicinal plants
are regularly employed as antibiotic agents
by practitioners of Ayurveda and Unani
system of medicine. In fact, the use of plant
materials in chemotherapy by the rural
populations for exceed the total employment
of modern medicaments in the country (1).
The present study reveals the antimicrobial
properties of five selected medicinal plants
such as Achyrathes aspera Linn
(Amaranthaceae), Ficus glomerata Roxb
(Moraceae) Leucas aspera Spreng
(Labiatae), Thespesia populnea Soland
(Malvaceae) and Zizyphus Jujuba Lam
(Rhamnaceae). The above mentioned
medicinal plants were selected for
antimicrobial activity studies on the basis of
medicinal value. The aqueous and alcoholic
extracts of the root of A. aspera caused a
sharp and transient fall in blood pressure. It
also showed spasmogenic effect of frog’s
rectus muscle and diuretic hypoglycaemic,
purgative action in albino in albino rats.
Clinically administration of the decoction of
the whole plant to patients of leprosy has
been reported to show encouraging results in
lepra reaction as well as the quiescent
inescent stage of lepromatous leprosy(2).
Dried fruits, mild sap (3) and bark (4) of F.
glomerata were reported
antidiabetic activity. Antispasmodic activity
of the root bark was also reported (5). The
hypoglycaemic activity of root bark and
leaves of F. glomerata has been reported (6).
Verma (7) has claimed that the juice from
the leaves of L. aspera was found to reduce
the acidity and heals ulcer when taken in
empty stomach. L. aspera bark extract
showed antibacterial activity and the leaf
extract showed antiviral activity. The
aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant
showed good anti-inflammatory and diuretic
activities (2). Bark, leaves and flowers of T.
populnea used in cutaneous affections,
astringent, dysentery and hemorrhoids (8) Z.
jujube used as mild laxative, expectorant,
astringent, diaphoretic (9) and antidiabetic
effect (10). Seeds exhibited central nervous
system depressant activity (11). Fruits
showed hypotensive diuretic and anti-
inflammatory actions. In Indian system of
medicine, the plant is considered as remedy
pages 230 - 239
in diarrhea, old wounds and ulcers to purify
the blood and aid digestion (12).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of medicinal Plants
Five medicinal plants were selected and
their parts, (only full grown and matured
parts) were collected around Udayanatham
village, Ariyalur District, Tamil Nadu , India
during the moths of April and May 1999.
The collected parts of medicinal plants were
brought into the laboratory for antimicrobial
Preparation of Alcohol Extract
The Collected medicinal plants were cleaned
and dried under shade. The dried plant
materials were then ground well to fine
powder. About 500gm of dry powder was
extracted with alcohol (80%) at 60-80o C by
continuous hot percolation using soxhlet
apparatus. The extraction was continued for
24 hours. The alcoholic extract was then
filtered and kept in oven at 50oC for 24
hours to evaporate the alcohol from it. A
dark brown residue was obtained. The solid
fractions were redissolved in dimethyl
formamide (DMF) and their antimicrobial
efficiency were noted. DMF was a inert
Selection of Micro Organisms
Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae
and Salmonella typhi were used for the
study of antimicrobial activity. The bacterial
cultures were maintained
consisting of nutrient agar medium. 24
hours cultures of E.Coli, K. Pneumoniae and
S. typhi were used in the antimicrobial
5% w/v test solution of each extract was
prepared by dissolving 250mg of each
extract separately in 5ml of sterile dimethy1
formamide (DMF). Nutrient agar medium
was prepared and sterilized by an autoclave.
In an aseptic room, they poured unto sterile
petridishes to a uniform depth of 4mm and
then allowed to
temperature. After solidification, the test
organism were inoculated with the help of a
sterile swab soake in a bacterial culture of
suspension. Thus provides the uniform
surface growth of bacterium and is used for
antibacterial sensitivity studies. Then the
sterile filter paper discs (6mm) containing
sample (100ul) were immensed in plant
extracts and was placed over the solidified
agar in such a way that there is no
overlapping of zone of inhibition (13).
Plates were kept at room temperature for
half an hour for the diffusion of the sample
into the agar media. The organisms
inoculated petridishes were incubated at
37oC for 48 hours. After the incubation
period is over, the zone of inhibition
produced by the sample with different
organisms in different plates were measured
and recorded immediately by using a zone
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION :
The extracts of A. aspera, F. glomerata, L.
aspera, T. Populnea and Z. Jujuba were used
to determine the antimicrobial activity
against E.coli, K. pneumoniae and S.typhi
(Table 1). A.asper a showed 7mm, 9mm,
and 8mm by zone of inhibition, F.glomerata
showed 7mm, 15mm and 8mm by zone of
inhibition, L.asper a showed 15mm, 14mm
and 11mm by zone of inhibition, T.
populnea showed 9mm, 11mm and 8mm by
zone of inhibition and Z. jujube showed
10mm, 15mm and 11mm by zone of
inhibition. All the measured values of zone
of inhibition compared with standard values.
solidify at room
pages 230 - 239
There is no zone of inhibition in control
(DMF) against E.coli, K. Pneumoniae and S.
Depending on the measured values of the
complete inhibition diameter of the circle
including the disc, in millimeter the
antibacterial activity can be classified into
the following types, such as>12mm zone of
inhibition –high sensitive, 9-12 mm zone
inhibition-moderately sensitive, 6-9 mm
zone of inhibition – less sensitive and <6
mm zone of inhibition –resistant (15).
So the present study reveals high sensitivity
>12mm zone of inhibition observed in t
extract of F.glomerta against K.Pneumoniae
(15mm), L.aspera against E.coli (15mm) and
K. Pneumoniae (14mm) and Z.jujuba
against K.Pneumoniae (15mm). Moderate
sensitivity 9-12 mm zone of inhibition
observed in the extract of L. aspera against
S. typhi (11 mm), T.Populnea against E.coli
(10 mm) and S.typhi (11mm). Less
sensitivity 6-9 mm Zone of inhibition
observed in the extract of A. aspera against
E.Coli (7mm), K.Pneumoniae (9mm) and
S.typhi (8mm) and T.populnea against E.coli
(9mm) and S.typhi (8mm).
The Chemical constituent of A. aspera a has
been found to certain betaine, achyranthine
1. Bhatnagar, S.S. Santapau, H., De Sa J.D.H., Maniar A.G., Chadially, N.C., Solomon,
M.J.,Yellore, S.and Rao,T.N.S. Indian J.Med.Res., 46,766(1961).
2. Satyavati, G.V., Ashok, K.Gupta and Neeraj Tandon. Medicinal plants of India.ICMR, New
Delhi, Vol.1&2 (1987).
3. Gupta, S.S Ind J. physio.Pharmacology,8(2), 37-38 (1964)
4. Neera Singh, Tyagi, S.D. and Agarwal, S.L.J. National integrated med. Association, 33(4),
5. Bhatt,R.m. and Koro, S.J.National integrated med. Association. 26(5), 131-133 (1984).
alkaloid, saponin containing oleanlic acid,
glucose, galactose, rhamnose and xylose (2).
F. glomerata contains β – sistosterol, lupeol
and its acetate, hentriacontane, tigilic and
aster of teraxasterol and gluanol acetate (6).
L. aspera leaves contain glucoside, sterols,
oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, β sitosterol,
palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic
acids (2). T.populnea flowers petals
herbacetin. Seeds yield a fatty oil, fruits
yields a yellow dye, dark yields a strong
fibre and tree yields a gum. Z.jujuba bark
contains tannin and fruits contains vitamin A
(8). The antimicrobial activity shows by the
extract might be due to some antimicrobial
substances present in them.
The Authors are thankful to Dr. M.
Jagadesan, Associate Professor, Dept. of
Siddha Medicine, faculty of Science, Tamil
University, Thanjavur – 613 005. for
identification of plants, Dr, M. Ravikumar,
Mr.G. Selvakumar and Ms .A. Nagasatya
Dept. of Microbiology, J.J. College of Arts
& Science , Pudukkottai 622 404. Tamil
Nadu, India for their kind help in
determination of antimicrobical studies.
pages 230 - 239
6. Balaji, K., Venkateshwaralu, V.and Reddy, V.M.Hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of ficus
glomerata, Ancient science of life, XV4,301-3003 (1996).
7. Verma, CR.R. Proceedings of the seminar of medicinal plants, Trichur (1981).
8. Chopra, R.N., Nayar. S.L.and Chopra, I.C. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. National
institute of science communication, New Delhi (1996).
9. Nadkarni, A.K. Indian materia medica, 3rd ed., Mumbai; popular prakashnam pvt Ltd; 1316 -
10. Aydin Erenmemisoglu, Fahretin Kelestimur, Hulusi Koker A, Huseyin Ustun, Yalcin Tekol
and Muzaffer Ustadal. Hypoglycacmic effect of Zizyphuw jujuba leaves.J. pharm
pharmacol., 47-72-74 (1994).
11. Watanabe, Isao, Japan J.Pharma, 23 563 (1973).
12. Chopra, R.n. Nayar, S.L. and Chopra, I.C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. CSIR. New
13. Maryzzella, J.C. and practical , A.H.,J.Am.Pharm. Assoc., 47,471 (1958).
14. Marian, T.G., Murthy, P.N. Ranganatham, P.Hymete, A. and Daka, K.The Eastern
Pharmacist, Vol 36, No.33,131 (1993).
15. Arora, D.S. and Bhardwaj, S.K. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants, Geo.Bios.
24,127 -131 (1997).
TABLE – 1
1. A. aspera (AP) 7
Diameter of Zone of inhibition (mm)
Name of the Plant extract
2. F.glomerata (L) 7 15 8
3 L.aspera (AP) 15 14 11
4. T.Populnrs (L) 9 11 8
5. Z.jujuba (L) 10 15 11
6. Standard 22 25 18
Formamide 00 00 00
pages 230 - 239
* Solvent control does not produce zone of inhibition.
- Achyranthes aspera
- Ficus glomerata
L.aspera - Leucas aspera
T.populnea - Thespesia populnea
Z.jujuba - Zizyphus jujube
E.coli - Escherichia coli
K.prenmoniae - Klebsiella pneumoniae
S.typhi - Salmonella typhi
pages 230 - 239