Thioether crosslinkages created by a radical SAM enzyme.
ABSTRACT Unusually versatile: While the β-carbon thioether linkage in lantibiotics has long been appreciated and is relatively well characterized, a recent publication shows that the unusual sulfur-to-α-carbon thioether crosslinks in subtilosin A are produced by a radical SAM enzyme, AlbA, that contains two [4 Fe-4 S] clusters, thus highlighting the versatility of post-translational modifications in natural product biosynthesis.
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ABSTRACT: The fact that biotin synthase, from Escherichia coli and Bacillus sphaericus, requires S-adenosylmethionine and a reducing system led us to postulate that this synthase could belong to the family of enzymes which use S-adenosylmethionine as a source of deoxyadenosyl radical, namely pyruvate formate-lyase, lysine 2,3-aminomutase, and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase. We describe here experiments with S-[2,8-(3)H] adenosylmethionine and S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine which allowed the identification and quantification of the expected cleavage products, deoxyadenosine, and methionine. They are formed in equimolar amounts, in a ratio close to 3 with respect to the biotin produced. We postulate a mechanism involving the homolytic cleavage of two C-H bonds which should consume two equivalents of S-adenosylmethionine. The observed excess of S-adenosylmethionine consumption is attributed to abortive processes.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/1997; 236(2):402-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nisin is a posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptide that is widely used as a food preservative. It contains five cyclic thioethers of varying sizes that are installed by a single enzyme, NisC. Reported here are the in vitro reconstitution of the cyclization process and the x-ray crystal structure of the NisC enzyme. The structure reveals similarities in fold and substrate activation with mammalian farnesyl transferases, suggesting that human homologs of NisC posttranslationally modify a cysteine of a protein substrate.Science 04/2006; 311(5766):1464-7. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Escherichia coli lipA gene product has been genetically linked to carbon-sulfur bond formation in lipoic acid biosynthesis [Vanden Boom, T. J., Reed, K. E., and Cronan, J. E., Jr. (1991) J. Bacteriol. 173, 6411-6420], although in vitro lipoate biosynthesis with LipA has never been observed. In this study, the lipA gene and a hexahistidine tagged lipA construct (LipA-His) were overexpressed in E. coli as soluble proteins. The proteins were purified as a mixture of monomeric and dimeric species that contain approximately four iron atoms per LipA polypeptide and a similar amount of acid-labile sulfide. Electron paramagnetic resonance and electronic absorbance spectroscopy indicate that the proteins contain a mixture of [3Fe-4S] and [4Fe-4S] cluster states. Reduction with sodium dithionite results in small quantities of an S = 1/2 [4Fe-4S](1+) cluster with the majority of the protein containing a species consistent with an S = 0 [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster. LipA was assayed for lipoate or lipoyl-ACP formation using E. coli lipoate-protein ligase A (LplA) or lipoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-protein-N-lipoyltransferase (LipB), respectively, to lipoylate apo-pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (apo-PDC) [Jordan, S. W., and Cronan, J. E. (1997) Methods Enzymol. 279, 176-183]. When sodium dithionite-reduced LipA was incubated with octanoyl-ACP, LipB, apo-PDC, and S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet), lipoylated PDC was formed. As shown by this assay, octanoic acid is not a substrate for LipA. Confirmation that LipA catalyzes formation of lipoyl groups from octanoyl-ACP was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry of a recombinant PDC lipoyl-binding domain that had been lipoylated in a LipA reaction. These results provide information about the mechanism of LipA catalysis and place LipA within the family of iron-sulfur proteins that utilize AdoMet for radical-based chemistry.Biochemistry 01/2001; 39(49):15166-78. · 3.38 Impact Factor