Modifiable risk factors for West Nile virus infection during an outbreak--Arizona, 2010.
ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the United States; however, risk factors for infection are poorly defined. We performed a case-control study to identify modifiable risk factors for WNV infection. Case-patients (N = 49) had laboratory evidence of recent WNV infection, whereas control-subjects (N = 74) had negative WNV serology. We interviewed participants, surveyed households, and assessed environmental data. WNV infection was associated with living in or near Water District X within Gilbert Township (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.5-18.1), having water-holding containers in their yard (aOR 5.0; 95% CI = 1.5-17.3), and not working or attending school outside the home (aOR 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1-5.5). During this outbreak, WNV infection was likely primarily acquired peri-domestically with increased risk associated with potential mosquito larval habitats around the home and neighborhood.
SourceAvailable from: Kristen L Burkhalter[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Molecular analysis of West Nile virus (WNV) isolates obtained during a 2010 outbreak in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, demonstrated co-circulation of 3 distinct genetic variants, including strains with novel envelope protein mutations. These results highlight the continuing evolution of WNV in North America and the current complexity of WNV dispersal and transmission.Emerging Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 20(2):272-5. DOI:10.3201/eid2002.131008 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America and Europe in recent years has raised the concerns of local authorities and highlighted that mosquito-borne disease is not restricted to tropical regions of the world. WNV is maintained in enzootic cycles involving, primarily, Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian hosts, with epizootic spread to mammals, including horses and humans. Human infection results in symptomatic illness in approximately one-fifth of cases and neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of infected persons. The most consistently recognized risk factor for neuroinvasive disease is older age, although diabetes mellitus, alcohol excess, and a history of cancer may also increase risk. Despite the increasing public health concern, the current WNV treatments are inadequate. Current evidence supporting the use of ribavirin, interferon α, and WNV-specific immunoglobulin are reviewed. Nucleic acid detection has been an important diagnostic development, which is particularly important for the protection of the donated blood supply. While effective WNV vaccines are widely available for horses, no human vaccine has been registered. Uncertainty surrounds the magnitude of future risk posed by WNV, and predictive models are limited by the heterogeneity of environmental, vector, and host factors, even in neighboring regions. However, recent history has demonstrated that for regions where suitable mosquito vectors and reservoir hosts are present, there will be a risk of major epidemics. Given the potential for these outbreaks to include severe neuroinvasive disease, strategies should be implemented to monitor for, and respond to, outbreak risk. While broadscale mosquito control programs will assist in reducing the abundance of mosquito populations and subsequently reduce the risks of disease, for many individuals, the use of topical insect repellents and other personal protective strategies will remain the first line of defense against infection.International Journal of General Medicine 04/2014; 7:193-203. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S59902
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ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) is a leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the United States. Annual seasonal outbreaks vary in size and location. Predicting where and when higher than normal WNV transmission will occur can help direct limited public health resources. We developed models for the contiguous United States to identify meteorological anomalies associated with above average incidence of WNV neuroinvasive disease from 2004 to 2012. We used county-level WNV data reported to ArboNET and meteorological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System. As a result of geographic differences in WNV transmission, we divided the United States into East and West, and 10 climate regions. Above average annual temperature was associated with increased likelihood of higher than normal WNV disease incidence, nationally and in most regions. Lower than average annual total precipitation was associated with higher disease incidence in the eastern United States, but the opposite was true in most western regions. Although multiple factors influence WNV transmission, these findings show that anomalies in temperature and precipitation are associated with above average WNV incidence. Readily accessible meteorological data may be used to develop predictive models to forecast geographic areas with elevated WNV disease risk before the coming season. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2015; 92(5). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0737 · 2.74 Impact Factor