Very late thrombosis continues to be a major cause of concern in the era of drug-eluting stents. The duration of vulnerability to this complication remains undefined. A 62-year-old diabetic male underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention with a Taxus Express stent (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass) implantation in 2003 for anterior wall myocardial infarction (AWMI). The patient was on dual anti-platelet treatment. He was asymptomatic and his stress test was negative in 2008. After 72 months, the patient was admitted with acute AWMI resulting from stent thrombosis, which was treated successfully. This case underscores the importance of realising that very late stent thrombosis may occur when patients present with angina symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While animal models are widely used to investigate the development of restenosis in blood vessels following an intervention, computational models offer another means for investigating this phenomenon. A computational model of the response of a treated vessel would allow investigators to assess the effects of altering certain vessel- and stent-related variables. The authors aimed to develop a novel computational model of restenosis development following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent implantation in an atherosclerotic vessel using agent-based modeling techniques. The presented model is intended to demonstrate the body's response to the intervention and to explore how different vessel geometries or stent arrangements may affect restenosis development.
The model was created on a two-dimensional grid space. It utilizes the post-procedural vessel lumen diameter and stent information as its input parameters. The simulation starting point of the model is an atherosclerotic vessel after an angioplasty and stent implantation procedure. The model subsequently generates the final lumen diameter, percent change in lumen cross-sectional area, time to lumen diameter stabilization, and local concentrations of inflammatory cytokines upon simulation completion. Simulation results were directly compared with the results from serial imaging studies and cytokine levels studies in atherosclerotic patients from the relevant literature.
The final lumen diameter results were all within one standard deviation of the mean lumen diameters reported in the comparison studies. The overlapping-stent simulations yielded results that matched published trends. The cytokine levels remained within the range of physiological levels throughout the simulations.
We developed a novel computational model that successfully simulated the development of restenosis in a blood vessel following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent deployment based on the characteristics of the vessel cross-section and stent. A further development of this model could ultimately be used as a predictive tool to depict patient outcomes and inform treatment options.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94411. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094411 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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