"Some of these techniques have been combined with adaptive optics (AO) to improve further the resolution of retinal images to cellular levels (Godara et al. 2010; Glanc et al. 2004; Williams 2011). As these advanced imaging methods continue to develop, the potential for imaging ocular structures down to the cellular level has become a reality in everyday clinical practice (Read et al. 2012). Fig. 5 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many efforts have been made to improve the diagnostic tools used to identify and to estimate the progress of ganglion cell and nerve fibre degeneration in glaucoma. Imaging by optical coherence tomography and measurements of the dimensions of the optic nerve head and the nerve fibre layer in central retinal areas is currently used to estimate the grade of pathological changes. The visualization and quantification of ganglion cells and nerve fibres directly in patients would dramatically improve glaucoma diagnostics. We have investigated the optical properties of cellular structures of retinal tissue in order to establish a means of visualizing and quantifying ganglion cells in the living retina without staining. We have characterized the optical properties of retinal tissue in several species including humans. Nerve fibres, blood vessels, ganglion cells and their cell processes have been visualized at high image resolution by means of the reflection mode of a confocal laser scanning microscope. The potential of adaptive optics in current imaging systems and the possibilities of imaging single ganglion cells non-invasively in patients are discussed.
Cell and Tissue Research 03/2013; 353(2). DOI:10.1007/s00441-013-1602-1 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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