The increasing usage of antibiotics in the animal farming industry is an emerging worldwide problem contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates collected from animal farming aquatic environments and meats in a peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea. In an antibacterial susceptibility test, the bacterial isolates showed a high incidence of resistance (∼26.04%) to cefazolin, tetracycline, gentamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. The results from a test for multiple antibiotic resistance indicated that the isolates were displaying an approximately 5-fold increase in the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance to combinations of two different antibiotics compared to combinations of three or more antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed multi-antibiotic resistance, and the resistance patterns were similar among the sampling groups. Sequencing data analysis of 16S rRNA showed that most of the resistant isolates appeared to be dominated by the classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Delftia, Burkholderia, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Shigella and Pseudomonas.
"And multidrug resistant (MDR) transporters that expel drugs from the cytoplasm or cytoplasmic membrane to the external medium constitute one of the proven causes of arrival of MDR bacteria, as demonstrated in E. coli  . Camaraderie in bacteria (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic) help exchange of genetic materials in aggrandizement of multidrug resistance, from one another  , eventually landing at intractable clinical managements with bacterial pathogens  . Cataclysmic rather staggering emergence of pandrug resistance ( resistance to all of antibiotics in use) is recorded in E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae  , that mire patients to a spate of comorbidities, as if living in a hospice, challenging the clinical or rather cleanly totem pole of a hospital. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to record nosocomial and community-acquired accounts of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains, isolated from clinical samples of a hospital by surveillance, over a period of 45 months (November 2009–July 2013). Methods: Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e., wards and cabins, intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and community (outpatient department, OPD) sources of the hospital, were used for isolating strains of E. coli, which were subjected to testing for the production of ‘extended spectrum beta-lactamase’- (ESBL) enzyme as well as, determining antibiotic sensitivity patterns with 23 antibiotics. Results: Of the total 1853 (100%) isolates, 919 (49.59%) strains were from OPD and 934 (50.41%) were from hospital sources. Occurrence of infectious E. coli strains increased in a mathematical progression in community sources, but in nosocomial sources, such values remained almost constant in each quarter. A total of 454 (24.50%) ESBL strains were isolated from the total 919 isolates of community; of the total of 523 (28.22%) isolates of wards and cabins, 228 (12.30%) were ESBL strains; and among the total of 411 (22.18%) isolates of ICU and NICU, ESBLs were 188 (10.14%); the total nosocomial ESBL isolates, 416 (22.45%) were from the nosocomial total of 934 (50.41%) strains. Statistically, it was confirmed that ESBL strains were equally distributed in community or hospital units. Antibiograms with 23 antibiotics of 4 antibiotic groups revealed a progressive increase of drug-resistance against each antibiotic with the maximum resistant values recorded against gentamicin: 92% and 79%, oxacillin: 94% and 69%, ceftriaxone: 85% and 58%, and norfloxacin 97% and 69% resistance, in nosocomial and community isolates, respectively. Conclusions: This study revealed the daunting state of occurrence of multidrug resistant E. coli and its infection dynamics in both community and hospital settings.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 04/2014; 4(2):140-149. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60331-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Freshwater fish, Alburnus alburnus (bleak), were captured from Lake Mogan, situated in Ankara, during spring. The surface mucus of the fish was collected and associated bacteria were cultured and isolated. By sequencing PCR-amplified 16S RNA encoding genes, the isolates were identified as members of 12 different genera: Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, in addition to one strain that was unidentified. The mucus-dwelling bacterial isolates were tested for resistance against ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. About 95% of the isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 93% to chloramphenicol, and 88% to kanamycin and streptomycin. A Microbacterium oxydans and the unidentified environmental isolate were resistant to all four antibiotics tested at very high levels (>1600 μg/ml ampicillin and streptomycin; >1120 μg/ml kanamycin; >960 μg/ml chloramphenicol). Only a Kocuria sp. was sensitive to all four antibiotics at the lowest concentrations tested (3.10 μg/ml ampicillin and streptomycin; 2.15 μg/ml kanamycin; 1.85 μg/ml chloramphenicol). The rest of the isolates showed different resistance levels. Plasmid isolations were carried out to determine if the multiple antibiotic resistance could be attributed to the presence of plasmids. However, no plasmid was detected in any of the isolates. The resistance appeared to be mediated by chromosome-associated functions. This study indicated that multiple antibiotic resistance at moderate to high levels is common among the current phenotypes of the fish mucus-dwelling bacterial populations in this temperate, shallow lake which has not been subjected to any aquaculturing so far but under anthropogenic effect being in a recreational area.
Water Research 09/2012; 46(19). DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.010 · 5.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inspections by customs agents at Barcelona airport discovered 420 kg of contraband glass eels prepared for shipment to Hong Kong. After confiscation of these animals by police, they were transported to holding facilities to be maintained until after a judicial hearing. Upon arrival, they were separated into two groups and held under ambient flow-through conditions in fresh water. During their captivity period, several peaks in mortality occurred and multiple bacterial strains were isolated from moribund animals. Sequencing of 16S rDNA was used to determine specific identity of the isolates. An initial isolation of Pseudomonas anguilliseptica was treated with oxytetracycline. A subsequent isolation of Delftia acidovorans proved resistant to oxytetracycline and was treated with gentamicin in combination with sulphadiazine-trimethoprim. Once the health condition of the animals was stabilized, they were partitioned into groups and subsequently released as part of a restocking effort for the species following the guidelines of Regulation (EC) 1100/2007 (Anon 2007). This represents the first record for both bacterial species in the host Anguilla anguilla in the Spanish Mediterranean.
Journal of Fish Diseases 01/2013; 36(7). DOI:10.1111/jfd.12066 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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