Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from animal farming aquatic environments and meats in a peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea
ABSTRACT The increasing usage of antibiotics in the animal farming industry is an emerging worldwide problem contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates collected from animal farming aquatic environments and meats in a peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea. In an antibacterial susceptibility test, the bacterial isolates showed a high incidence of resistance (∼26.04%) to cefazolin, tetracycline, gentamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. The results from a test for multiple antibiotic resistance indicated that the isolates were displaying an approximately 5-fold increase in the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance to combinations of two different antibiotics compared to combinations of three or more antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed multi-antibiotic resistance, and the resistance patterns were similar among the sampling groups. Sequencing data analysis of 16S rRNA showed that most of the resistant isolates appeared to be dominated by the classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Delftia, Burkholderia, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Shigella and Pseudomonas.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to record nosocomial and community-acquired accounts of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains, isolated from clinical samples of a hospital by surveillance, over a period of 45 months (November 2009–July 2013). Methods: Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e., wards and cabins, intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and community (outpatient department, OPD) sources of the hospital, were used for isolating strains of E. coli, which were subjected to testing for the production of ‘extended spectrum beta-lactamase’- (ESBL) enzyme as well as, determining antibiotic sensitivity patterns with 23 antibiotics. Results: Of the total 1853 (100%) isolates, 919 (49.59%) strains were from OPD and 934 (50.41%) were from hospital sources. Occurrence of infectious E. coli strains increased in a mathematical progression in community sources, but in nosocomial sources, such values remained almost constant in each quarter. A total of 454 (24.50%) ESBL strains were isolated from the total 919 isolates of community; of the total of 523 (28.22%) isolates of wards and cabins, 228 (12.30%) were ESBL strains; and among the total of 411 (22.18%) isolates of ICU and NICU, ESBLs were 188 (10.14%); the total nosocomial ESBL isolates, 416 (22.45%) were from the nosocomial total of 934 (50.41%) strains. Statistically, it was confirmed that ESBL strains were equally distributed in community or hospital units. Antibiograms with 23 antibiotics of 4 antibiotic groups revealed a progressive increase of drug-resistance against each antibiotic with the maximum resistant values recorded against gentamicin: 92% and 79%, oxacillin: 94% and 69%, ceftriaxone: 85% and 58%, and norfloxacin 97% and 69% resistance, in nosocomial and community isolates, respectively. Conclusions: This study revealed the daunting state of occurrence of multidrug resistant E. coli and its infection dynamics in both community and hospital settings.04/2014; 4(2):140-149.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To assess antibacterial activities of leaf and bark extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica (H. antidysenterica), used by an Indian aborigine for ailments of human gastrointestinal tract, against eight extended spectrum β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant enteropathogens. Methods Antibacterial activities of eight solvent-extracts of the plant were monitored by the agar-well diffusion method on lawns of all bacteria. Further, minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the best three solvent extracts were determined by the micro-broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the active leaf and bark extracts were carried out. Results It was found that Enterobacter aerogenes was resistant to 14 of 16 antibiotics, likewise, Escherichia coli to 13, Klebsiella sp. to 14, Salmonella paratyphi to 7, Salmonella typhi to 15, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei to 14, Vibrio cholerae to 4 of 16 antibiotics. It was found that plant-extracts with petroleum ether and n-hexane had the least antibacterial activity. Extracts of leaves with chloroform, methanol, and water registered moderate antibacterial activity, whereas bark-extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol had a comparatively higher antibacterial activity on all these strains. Maximum sizes of zone of inhibition due to leaf extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol, and on the other hand, bark extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol were recorded against these bacteria; minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of specifically these extracts were determined. Phytochemical analysis of the methanolic bark extract of H. antidysenterica confirmed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugars, tannins, and flavonoids. Conclusion Data analysis revealed that leaves and bark of H. antidysenterica could serve as complementary/supplementary drugs along with suitable antibiotics to control the marauding multidrug resistant enteropathogens.01/2014; 4:S54–S63. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60415-1
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ABSTRACT: An on-chip multiple-concentration method combining field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) and reversed-field stacking (RFS) in microchip micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MCMEKC) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of three antibiotics (kanamycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin) using poly (styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt (PSS) as the pseudostationary phase. Results indicated that the polymeric surfactant PSS provided high stability, unique selectivity, and high efficiency for the separation of these antibiotics as compared to SDS micelles, and the multiple-preconcentration strategy could greatly improve the sensitivity enhancement over those classical CE-LIF methods for antibiotics detection. The stacking and separation mechanism as well as important parameters governing preconcentration and separation have been investigated in order to obtain maximum resolution and sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, three antibiotics were successfully focused and completely separated within <3min. The limits of detection for kanamycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin were 0.25, 0.20, and 0.80μg/L (S/N=3), respectively, and the detection sensitivities were improved 259-, 296-, and 308-fold, respectively. The method also gave accurate and reliable results in the analysis of these antibiotics in river water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 11/2014; 103C:91-98. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2014.11.004 · 2.83 Impact Factor