Profile of stress and toxicity gene expression in human hepatic cells treated with Efavirenz.
ABSTRACT Hepatic toxicity and metabolic disorders are major adverse effects elicited during the pharmacological treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Efavirenz (EFV), the most widely used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been associated with these events, with recent studies implicating it in stress responses involving mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in human hepatic cells. To expand these findings, we analyzed the influence of EFV on the expression profile of selected stress and toxicity genes in these cells. Significant up-regulation was observed with Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1), which indicated metabolic stress. Several genes directly related to oxidative stress and damage exhibited increased expression, including Methalothionein 2A (MT2A), Heat shock 70kDa protein 6 (HSPA6), Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3). In addition, Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) was enhanced, whereas mRNA levels of the inflammatory genes Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and Serpin peptidase inhibitor (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1 (SERPINE1) decreased and increased, respectively. This profile of gene expression supports previous data demonstrating altered mitochondrial function and presence of oxidative stress/damage in EFV-treated hepatic cells, and may be of relevance in the search for molecular targets with therapeutic potential to be employed in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the hepatic toxicity associated with HIV therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant adverse effect of antitubercular therapy with isoniazid (INH). Although the drug has been used for many decades, the underlying mode of action (both patient-specific and drug-specific mechanisms) leading to DILI are poorly understood. Among the patient-specific determinants of susceptibility to INH-associated DILI, the importance of HLA genetic variants has been increasingly recognized, whereas the role of polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes (NAT2 and CYP2E1) has become less important and remains controversial. However, these polymorphisms are merely correlative, and other molecular determinants of susceptibility have remained largely unknown. Regarding the drug-specific mechanisms underlying INH-induced liver injury, novel concepts have been emerging. Among these are covalent protein adduct formation via novel reactive intermediates, leading to hapten formation and a potential immune response, and interference with endogenous metabolism. Furthermore, INH and/or INH metabolites (e.g. hydrazine) can cause mitochondrial injury, which can lead to mitochondrial oxidant stress and impairment of energy homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed that underlying impairment of complex I function can trigger massive hepatocellular injury induced by otherwise nontoxic concentrations of INH superimposed on these mitochondrial deficiencies. This review discusses these emerging new paradigms of INH-induced DILI and highlights recent insights into the mechanisms, as well as points to the existing large gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis.Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2014; 29(4):678-87. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conflicting reports on the effects of efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) have been described. To assess the 48-week molecular and clinical effects of LPV/r and EFV, combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), on SAT of HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients. Forty-four adults were started with LPV/r or EFV combined with TDF/FTC. Fasting metabolic tests, HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, and fat measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were obtained at study entry and week 48. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and transcripts for mtDNA-encoded proteins and genes involved in inflammation, adipocyte differentiation and metabolism were assessed in paired SAT biopsies. Whole body fat and limb fat mass increased in the LPV/r and EFV groups. MtDNA and Cox II did not change and cytochrome b increased significantly in EFV patients. TNF-α and MCP-1 gene expression did not change in the LPV/r group, but significantly increased in the EFV group. IL-18 decreased in LPV/r group while it increased in EFV group. Starting TDF/FTC plus EFV was associated with increased expression of genes encoding for inflammatory cytokines in SAT in naïve patients. Therapy with TDF/FTC plus LPV/r or EFV was associated with an increase in subcutaneous fat mass.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2014; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidermal keratinocytes serve as the primary barrier between the body and environmental stressors. They are subjected to numerous stress events and are likely to respond with a repertoire of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPA6 (HSP70B') is described in other cell types with characteristically low to undetectable basal expression, but is highly stress induced. Despite this response in other cells, little is known about its control in keratinocytes. We examined endogenous human keratinocyte HSPA6 expression and localized some responsible transcription factor sites in a cloned HSPA6 3 kb promoter. Using promoter 5' truncations and deletions, negative and positive regulatory regions were found throughout the 3 kb promoter. A region between -346 and -217 bp was found to be crucial to HSPA6 basal expression and stress inducibility. Site-specific mutations and DNA-binding studies show that a previously uncharacterized AP1 site contributes to the basal expression and maximal stress induction of HSPA6. Additionally, a new heat shock element (HSE) within this region was defined. While this element mediates increased transcriptional response in thermally stressed HaCaT keratinocytes, it preferentially binds a stress-inducible factor other than heat shock factor (HSF)1 or HSF2. Intriguingly, this newly characterized HSPA6 HSE competes HSF1 binding a consensus HSE and binds both HSF1 and HSF2 from other epithelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the HSPA6 promoter contains essential negative and positive promoter regions and newly identified transcription factor targets, which are key to the basal and stress-inducible expression of HSPA6. Furthermore, these results suggest that an HSF-like factor may preferentially bind this newly identified HSPA6 HSE in HaCaT cells.Cell Stress and Chaperones 07/2014; · 2.54 Impact Factor