The therapeutic effects of daphnetin in collagen-induced arthritis involve its regulation of Th17 cells.

Department of Immunology, Medical College of Nanchang University, 461 Nanchang Bayi Road, Nanchang of Jiangxi Province 330006, China.
International immunopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.21). 04/2012; 13(4):417-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2012.04.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Daphne odora var. marginata (D. marginata), an aiophyllus arbuscular plant, is one of the traditional Chinese medicines used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. This study investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of daphnetin, an active monomer ingredient derived from D. marginata, on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats.
The effects of daphnetin on joint diseases were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and radiographic and transmission electron microscopy. The protein and mRNA expression levels of T helper (Th)1/Th2/Th17-type cytokines in the spleen were determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR.
Our results showed that daphnetin significantly reduced paw swelling and was nontoxic in vivo at the tested doses. Synovial hyperplasia, joint destruction and chondrocyte degeneration in CIA rats were suppressed by daphnetin. Daphnetin treatment also reduced the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 type cytokines in spleen lymphocytes in CIA rats. Moreover, the expression of Foxp3, which can down-regulate the activity of Th17 cells, was significantly increased in the daphnetin-treated groups.
These results suggest that daphnetin may have therapeutic effects in down-regulating Th17-type responses in CIA rats. The beneficial effects of daphnetin on CIA may be related to its inhibition of Th17 cell priming and activation.

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    ABSTRACT: Background We have previously reported that dephnetin is therapeutically effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. However, the molecular mechanism and the effect of daphnetin on demethylating proapoptotic genes in the synovial cells remains further clarified. This study may provide a deeper insight into the medicinal application of daphnetin as a treatment for RA.Methods(1) The proliferation inhibition of CIA rat synovial cells was determined by an MTT (3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyterazoliumromide) assay; (2) Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was used to measure the methylation of the proapoptotic genes DR3 (death receptor 3), PDCD5 (programmed cell death 5), FasL and p53; (3) Real time-PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression of DR3, PDCD5, FasL, p53 and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b; (4) Flow cytometry was applied to detect the protein expression of the DR3, PDCD5, FasL and p53; (5) The apoptotic rate of synovial cells was assessed by flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI); (6) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe the changes of CIA rat synovial cell structure.Results(1) In the range of 1.25 ¿g/mL to 40 ¿g/mL, daphnetin and 5-aza-dc had a dose-dependent and time-dependent degree of inhibition to the CIA rat synovial cells. (2) Daphnetin and 5-aza-dc had a demethylating role on the proapoptotic genes DR3, PDCD5, FasL and p53 of CIA rat synovial cells. (3) Daphnetin and 5-aza-dc decreased the gene expression of methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and increased expression of proapoptotic genes DR3, PDCD5, FasL and p53, which translated into an increased protein expression of DR3, PDCD5, FasL and p53. (4) Daphnetin and 5-aza-dc changed the structure of CIA rat synovial cells to show apoptotic changes and increased the rate of apoptosis.Conclusions Daphnetin can reduce the expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, which could result in the proapoptotic genes DR3, PDCD5, FasL and p53 being demethylated. Therefore, daphnetin can increase proapoptotic gene and protein expression resulting in structural apoptotic changes and an increase in early and late CIA rat synovial cell apoptosis.
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    ABSTRACT: Daphnetin, a natural coumarin derivative, is known to display anti-inflammatory properties and has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. A novel finding suggested that daphnetin might have a neuroprotective effect in stressed mice, leading us to explore its role in the microglial inflammatory response, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. We found that the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or β-amyloid (Aβ) was significantly suppressed by daphnetin in a dose-dependent manner in BV2 microglia. Also, daphnetin inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and NO formation by microglia. Mechanistically, daphnetin blunted the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which was associated with the down-regulation of the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of RelA/p65. Inhibitors of kappa B (IκB) phosphorylation and degradation were also affected by daphnetin, which was likely due to the reduced activation of IκB kinase (IKK). Additionally, LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, were, to a varying extent, altered by daphnetin. Finally, daphnetin blocked phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling in LPS-activated microglia, which appeared to at least partially account for the reduction in NF-κB transcriptional activity. Thus, daphnetin inhibited microglial activation and proinflammatory responses by modulating a series of intracellular signaling pathways, including IKK/IκB, MAPKs and PI-3K/Akt.
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