Effects of low-dose aspirin on acute inflammatory responses in humans
ABSTRACT Aspirin is a unique nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; at high doses (aspirin(high), 1g), it is anti-inflammatory stemming from the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and proinflammatory signaling pathways including NF-kappaB, but is cardioprotective at lower doses (aspirin(low), 75 mg). The latter arises from the inhibition of thromboxane (Tx) B(2), a prothrombotic eicosanoid also implicated in polymorphonuclear leukocyte trafficking. As a result, aspirin(low) is widely used as a primary and secondary preventative against vascular disease. Despite this and its ability to synthesize proresolution 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) it is not known whether aspirin(low) is anti-inflammatory in humans. To address this, we generated skin blisters by topically applying cantharidin on the forearm of healthy male volunteers, causing an acute inflammatory response including dermal edema formation and leukocyte trafficking. Although not affecting blister fluid volume, aspirin(low) (75 mg, oral, once daily/10 days) reduced polymorphonuclear leukocyte and macrophage accumulation independent of NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression and inhibition of conventional prostanoids. However, aspirin(low) triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) synthesis and up-regulated its receptor (FPRL1, ALX). From complimentary in vitro experiments, we propose that 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) exerts its protective effects by triggering antiadhesive NO, thereby dampening leukocyte/endothelial cell interaction and subsequent extravascular leukocyte migration. Since similar findings were obtained from murine zymosan-induced peritonitis, we suggest that aspirin(low) possesses the ability to inhibit mammalian innate immune-mediated responses. This highlights 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) as a novel anti-inflammatory working through a defined receptor and suggests that mimicking its mode of action represents a new approach to treating inflammation-driven diseases.
Dataset: AJP-2012-CN Serhan Krishnamoorthy
Article: Lipoxin A 4 and 15-Epi-Lipoxin A 4 Protect against Experimental Cerebral Malaria by Inhibiting IL-12/IFN-g in the Brain[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cerebral malaria is caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum and can lead to severe neurological manifestations and predominantly affects sub-Saharan African children. The pathogenesis of this disease involves unbalanced over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is clear that signaling though IL-12 receptor is a critical step for development of cerebral malaria, IL-12 genetic deficiency failed to show the same effect, suggesting that there is redundancy among the soluble mediators which leads to immunopathology and death. Consequently, counter-regulatory mediators might protect the host during cerebral malaria. We have previously showed that endogenously produced lipoxins, which are anti-inflammatory mediators generated by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid, limit host damage in a model of mouse toxoplasmosis. We postulated here that lipoxins might also play a counter-regulatory role during cerebral malaria. To test this hypothesis, we infected 5-LO-deficient hosts with P. berghei ANKA strain, which induces a mouse model of cerebral malaria (ECM). Our results show accelerated mortality concomitant with exuberant IL-12 and IFN-c production in the absence of 5-lipoxygenase. Moreover, in vivo administration of lipoxin to 5-LO-deficient hosts prevented early mortality and reduced the accumulation of CD8 + IFN-c + cells in the brain. Surprisingly, WT animals treated with lipoxin either at the time of infection or 3 days post-inoculum also showed prolonged survival and diminished brain inflammation, indicating that although protective, endogenous lipoxin production is not sufficient to optimally protect the host from brain damage in cerebral malaria. These observations establish 5-LO/LXA 4 as a host protective pathway and suggest a new therapeutic approach against human cerebral malaria (HCM). (255 words). Copyright: ß 2013 Shryock et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This work was funded by National Institutes of Health grant AI 075038 (JA, NS and CM). FTMC is a Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoló gico fellow and is enrolled at the Programa Estratégico de Ciência, Tecnologia & Inovação nas Fundaçõ es Estaduais de Saú de (PECTI/AM Saú de) from Fundação de Amparoà Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (Amazonas-Brazil). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61882. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) represent a one of the most widely used anti-inflammatory substances. Their anti-inflammatory effects are mainly based on inhibition of cyclooxygenase. The potential direct effect of NSAID on leukocyte migration was poorly investigated. Using time-lapse microscopy and 96-well fluorescence-based assay, we studied the effect of three different NSAID, ketoprofen, diclofenac and SC-560, on leukocyte haptokinesis and haptotaxis in vivo and in vitro. NSAID induced an immediate inhibiting effect on leukocyte migration both in vitro and in vivo. This effect was dose-dependent and was not restricted to a specific type of leukocytes. The inhibition of leukocyte migration by NSAID was partially re-stored after removal of inhibiting agent. Only complete blockade of leukocyte migration was accompanied by a strong reduction of [Ca(2+)]i. NSAID strongly supress leukocyte migration. The results of the present study may have important clinical implications since blockade of leukocyte migration can be achieved after topical application of NSAID.BMC Immunology 11/2011; 12:64. · 2.53 Impact Factor