Phosphate homeostasis and its role in bone health

Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Clinics Hospital, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Pediatric Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.86). 05/2012; 27(11):2039-48. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-012-2175-z
Source: PubMed


Phosphate is one of the most abundant minerals in the body, and its serum levels are regulated by a complex set of processes occurring in the intestine, skeleton, and kidneys. The currently known main regulators of phosphate homeostasis include parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol, and a number of peptides collectively known as the "phosphatonins" of which fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) has been best defined. Maintenance of extracellular and intracellular phosphate levels within a narrow range is important for many biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, regulation of protein synthesis, skeletal development, and bone integrity. The presence of adequate amounts of phosphate is critical for the process of apoptosis of mature chondrocytes in the growth plate. Without the presence of this mineral in high enough quantities, chondrocytes will not go into apoptosis, and the normal physiological chain of events that includes invasion of blood vessels and the generation of new bone will be blocked, resulting in rickets and delayed growth. In the rest of the skeleton, hypophosphatemia will result in osteomalacia due to an insufficient formation of hydroxyapatite. This review will address phosphate metabolism and its role in bone health.

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Available from: Maria Goretti M G Penido, Oct 06, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Control of systemic inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels is crucial for osteoid mineralization. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mediates actions on phosphate homeostasis mostly by regulating the activity of the type 2 sodium-phosphate cotransporter (Npt2), and this action requires the PDZ protein NHERF1. Osteoblasts express Npt2 and in response to PTH enhance osteogenesis by increasing mineralized matrix. The regulation of Pi transport in osteoblasts is poorly understood. To address this gap we characterized PTH-dependent Pi transport and the role of NHERF1 in primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Under proliferating conditions osteoblasts express Npt2a, Npt2b, PTH receptor, and NHERF1. Npt2a mRNA expression was lower in calvarial osteoblasts from NHERF1-null mice. Under basal conditions Pi uptake in osteoblasts from wild-type mice was greater than that of knockout mice. PTH inhibited Pi uptake in proliferating osteoblasts from wild-type mice, but not in cells from knockout mice. In vitro induction of mineralization enhanced osteoblast differentiation and increased osterix and osteocalcin expression. Contrary to the results with proliferating osteoblasts, PTH increased Pi uptake and ATP secretion in differentiated osteoblasts from wild-type mice. PTH had no effect on Pi uptake or ATP release in differentiated osteoblasts from knockout mice. NHERF1 regulation of PTH-sensitive Pi uptake in proliferating osteoblasts is mediated by cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC, while modulation of Pi uptake in differentiated osteoblasts depends only on cAMP/PKA signaling. The results suggest that NHERF1 cooperates with PTH in differentiated osteoblasts to increase matrix mineralization. We conclude that NHERF1 regulates PTH that differentially affects Na-dependent Pi transport at distinct stages of osteoblast proliferation and maturation.
    Bone 10/2012; 52(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.10.001 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    Pediatric Nephrology 05/2013; 29(3). DOI:10.1007/s00467-013-2466-z · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A decade ago, only two hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2D, were widely recognized to directly affect phosphate homeostasis. Since the discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in 2000 (1), our understanding of the mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis and of bone mineralization has grown exponentially. FGF23 is the link between intestine, bone, and kidney together in phosphate regulation. However, we still do not know the complex mechanism of phosphate homeostasis and bone mineralization. The physiological role of FGF23 is to regulate serum phosphate. Secreted mainly by osteocytes and osteoblasts in the skeleton (2,3), it modulates kidney handling of phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol production. Genetic and acquired abnormalities in FGF23 structure and metabolism cause conditions of either hyper-FGF23 or hypo-FGF23. Hyper-FGF23 is related to hypophosphatemia, while hypo-FGF23 is related to hyperphosphatemia. Both hyper-FGF23 and hypo-FGF23 are detrimental to humans. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of FGF23 and hyper-FGF23 related renal phosphate wasting disorders (4).
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