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    ABSTRACT: Molecular ecologists increasingly require 'universal' genetic markers that can easily be transferred between species. The distribution of cross-species transferability of nuclear microsatellite loci is highly uneven across taxa, being greater in animals and highly variable in flowering plants. The potential for successful cross-species transfer appears highest in species with long generation times, mixed or outcrossing breeding systems, and where genome size in the target species is small compared to the source. We discuss the implications of these findings and close with an outlook on potential alternative sources of cross-species transferable markers.
    Molecular Ecology 10/2007; 16(18):3759-67. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four populations of Astyanax aff. fasciatus of the upper rio Tibagi (municipal district of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil), had their karyotypes and morphometry analyzed. The cytogenetic data show the occurrence of distinct karyotypes (cytotypes), here named cytotype A, with 2n=48 chromosomes (6m+18sm+14st+10a), cytotype B, with 2n=50 chromosomes (8m+18sm+14st+10a) and cytotype C, with 2n=50 chromosomes (8m+18sm+14st+10a). The distribution pattern of the consti- tutive heterochromatin was very similar between cytotypes A and B, but diverged in relation to cytotype C. Distinct cytotypes may occur in sympatry in the upper rio Tibagi region, with the exception of the Furna 2 sample, which presents cytotype A exclusively. In addition, a specimen with 2n=49 chromosomes (7m+18sm+14st+10a) was also found and, by the characteristics presented, may be a consequence of a rare hybridization event between cytotypes A and B. The morphometric analyses of canonical variates indicate a consistent isolation of the Furna 2 sample, while the other samples seem to be superimposed, indicating a possible gene flow or even a recent isolation event. This model points to a probable complex of cryptic species in the studied region. Quatro populações de Astyanax aff. fasciatus do alto rio Tibagi (município de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil) foram citogeneticamente e morfometricamente analisadas. Os dados citogenéticos mostram a ocorrência de distintos cariótipos (citótipos), aqui nomeados citótipo A, com 2n=48 (6m+18sm+14st+10a), citótipo B, com 2n=50 (8m+18sm+14st+10a) e citótipo C, com 2n=50 cromossomos (8m+18sm+14st+10a). O padrão de distribuição da heterocromatina constitutiva foi muito similar entre os citótipos A e B, mas mostrou-se divergente em relação ao citótipo C. Citótipos distintos podem ocorrer em simpatria na região do alto rio Tibagi, com exceção da amostra da Furna 2, a qual apresenta somente o citótipo A exclusivamente. Além disso, um exemplar com 2n=49 cromoossomos (7m+18sm+14st+10a) foi também encontrado e, pelas características apresentadas, pode ser uma conseqüência de um raro evento de hibridização entre os citótipos A e B. As análises morfométricas de variáveis canônicas indicam um isolamento consistente da amostra da Furna 2 enquanto as demais amostras analisadas se apresentam sobrepostas indicando um possível fluxo gênico ou evento de isolamento recente. Este modelo aponta para um complexo de espécies crípticas na região estudada.
    Neotropical Ichthyology 01/2006; 4(2). · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astyanax fishes are among the most important food-web components of South America rivers. In the Iguaçu River basin, the Astyanax genus is represented mainly by endemic species. For millions of years, that hydrographic basin has been geographically isolated from the Paraná River basin by the Iguaçu Falls. Recently, a species from the Upper Paraná River basin identified as Astyanax bimaculatus was revised and described as a new species named Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000. Fauna endemism and geographic isolation triggered interest in investigations to evaluate the identification and genetic relatedness among two A. altiparanae populations from the Upper Paraná River basin and the population identified as A. bimaculatus in the Iguaçu River, upstream from the Iguaçu Falls. Mitochondrial DNA sequences and RAPD markers revealed high genetic diversity within each population, as well as low genetic distance, high gene flow, and high mitochondrial DNA similarity among all three populations. In conjunction with morphological similarities, these results demonstrated that the population presently known as Astyanax bimaculatus in the Iguaçu River should actually be stated as Astyanax altiparanae. Furthermore, it could be inferred that the A. altiparanae population is not endemic and most likely it was recently introduced in the Iguaçu River basin, maintaining the ancestral genetic identity.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology 01/2002; · 0.74 Impact Factor

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