miRNA-708 control of CD44(+) prostate cancer-initiating cells.
ABSTRACT Tumor recurrence in prostate cancer has been attributed to the presence of CD44-expressing tumor-initiating cells. In this study, we report that miR-708 is a key negative regulator of this CD44(+) subpopulation of prostate cancer cells, with important implications for diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. miR-708 was underexpressed in CD44(+) cells from prostate cancer xenografts. Reconstitution of miR-708 in prostate cancer cell lines or CD44(+) prostate cancer cells led to decreased tumorigenicity in vitro. Intratumoral delivery of synthetic miR-708 oligonucleotides triggered regression of established tumors in a murine xenograft model of human prostate cancer. Conversely, miR-708 silencing in a purified CD44(-) population of prostate cancer cells promoted tumor growth. Functional studies validated CD44 to be a direct target of miR-708 and also identified the serine/threonine kinase AKT2 as an additional target. Clinically, low miR-708 expression was associated significantly with poor survival outcome, tumor progression, and recurrence in patients with prostate cancer. Together, our findings suggest that reduced miR-708 expression leads to prostate cancer initiation, progression, and development by regulating the expression of CD44 as well as AKT2. miR-708 therefore may represent a novel therapeutic target or diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Chanseok Shin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are endogenous approximately 23-nucleotide RNAs that can pair to sites in the messenger RNAs of protein-coding genes to downregulate the expression from these messages. MicroRNAs are known to influence the evolution and stability of many mRNAs, but their global impact on protein output had not been examined. Here we use quantitative mass spectrometry to measure the response of thousands of proteins after introducing microRNAs into cultured cells and after deleting mir-223 in mouse neutrophils. The identities of the responsive proteins indicate that targeting is primarily through seed-matched sites located within favourable predicted contexts in 3' untranslated regions. Hundreds of genes were directly repressed, albeit each to a modest degree, by individual microRNAs. Although some targets were repressed without detectable changes in mRNA levels, those translationally repressed by more than a third also displayed detectable mRNA destabilization, and, for the more highly repressed targets, mRNA destabilization usually comprised the major component of repression. The impact of microRNAs on the proteome indicated that for most interactions microRNAs act as rheostats to make fine-scale adjustments to protein output.Nature 10/2008; 455(7209):64-71. · 42.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 23 nt RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. This review outlines the current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals and discusses the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes.Cell 02/2009; 136(2):215-33. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Characterization of the molecular pathways that are required for the viability and maintenance of self-renewing tumor-initiating cells may ultimately lead to improved therapies for cancer. In this study, we show that a CD133+/CD44+ population of cells enriched in prostate cancer progenitors (PCaPs) has tumor-initiating potential and that these progenitors can be expanded under nonadherent, serum-free, sphere-forming conditions. Cells grown under these conditions have increased in vitro clonogenic and in vivo tumorigenic potential. mRNA expression analysis of cells grown under sphere-forming conditions, compared with long-term monolayer cultures, revealed preferential activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PI3K p110α and β-protein levels were higher in cells grown under sphere-forming conditions, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) knockdown by shRNA led to an increase in sphere formation as well as increased clonogenic and tumorigenic potential. Similarly, shRNA knockdown of FoxO3a led to an increase in tumorigenic potential. Consistent with these results, inhibition of PI3K activity by the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 led to growth inhibition of PCaPs. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways are critical for prostate cancer stem-like cell maintenance and that targeting PI3K signaling may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment by eliminating prostate cancer stem-like cells.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2009; 106(1):268-273. · 9.81 Impact Factor