Determination of aniracetam's main metabolite, N-anisoyl-GABA, in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study
ABSTRACT A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of 4-p-anisamidobutyric acid (ABA; or N-anysoyl-γ-aminobutiryc acid, N-anisoyl-GABA), a major active metabolite of aniracetam, in human plasma. After protein precipitation of plasma sample with methanol, ABA and the internal standard lisinopril were separated on a Venusil ASB C₁₈ column at 25 °C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-ammonium acetate (10 mmol/L) (30:70, v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with an ESI source in negative ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the precursor→product ion combinations of m/z 235.8→m/z 106.6, and m/z 403.8→m/z 113.6 was used to quantify ABA and lisinopril, respectively. This is the first LC-MS/MS method for ABA with advantages of short analysis time (4.5 min per sample run) and high selectivity attributable to the MRM detection and optimized HPLC conditions. The response was linear in a concentration range of 0.0485-19.4 μg/mL in plasma. The extraction recovery of ABA was between 89.1% and 100.7%. The precision (RSD) and accuracy (RE) of the method were evaluated to be within 7.3% and from 2.5% to 6.9%. The validated method has been applied to the pharmacokinetic study after a single oral administration of aniracetam dispersible tablets to human beings.
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ABSTRACT: Two different reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of aniracetam (I) and its metabolite N-anisoyl-GABA (II) in human plasma are described. The procedure for I involves direct injection of plasma samples spiked with the internal standard on a clean-up column followed by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column. The limit of quantification was 5 ng/ml, using a 200-microliters specimen of plasma. The mean inter-assay precision of the method up to 800 ng/ml was 3%. The procedure for II involved liquid-liquid extraction of II and the internal standard from plasma with ethyl acetate, and reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column. The limit of quantification was 50 ng/ml using a 0.5-ml plasma specimen. The mean inter-assay precision up to 50 micrograms/ml was 6%. The applicability and accuracy of the methods were demonstrated by the analysis of over 1000 plasma samples from two bioavailability studies in healthy volunteers.Journal of Chromatography A 10/1990; 530(2):397-406. DOI:10.1016/S0378-4347(00)82342-7 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to further investigate the effects of aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, and its metabolites on the brain cholinergic system. We measured choline acetyltransferase activity and acetylcholine release using in vivo brain microdialysis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The enzyme activity in the pons-midbrain and hippocampus, and basal acetylcholine release in the nucleus reticularis thalami were lower in SHRSP than in age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats, indicating central cholinergic deficits in SHRSP. Repeated treatment of aniracetam (50 mg/kg p.o. x 11 for 6 days) preferentially increased the enzyme activity in the thalamus, whereas decreased it in the striatum. Among the metabolites of aniracetam, local perfusion of N-anisoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0.1 and/or 1 microM) and p-anisic acid (1 microM) into the nucleus reticularis thalami, dorsal hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of SHRSP produced a significant but delayed increase of acetylcholine release. We failed, however, to find any effect of aniracetam itself. A direct injection of N-anisoyl-GABA (1 nmol) into the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of SHRSP enhanced the release in the nucleus reticularis thalami. Thus, these data prove that aniracetam can facilitate central cholinergic neurotransmission via both metabolites. Based on its pharmacokinetic profile, N-anisoyl-GABA may contribute to the clinical effects of aniracetam, mainly by acting on the reticulothalamic cholinergic pathway.European Journal of Pharmacology 10/1999; 380(2-3):81-9. DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(99)00534-8 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Central serotonergic systems play an important role in regulating mood/emotion, cognition, sleep and wakefulness, appetite and locomotion and body temperature via multiple receptor subtypes. Among them, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors have opposite effects with respect to certain functions. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, on the performance of middle-aged rats in a two-lever choice reaction task that assessed attention and vigilance functions. We also examined the effects of aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, and its major metabolites on the induced performance impairments. 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 mg/kg s.c.) reduced response speed and choice accuracy and increased response omission with a reduction of task-associated motor activity without inducing motor inability or motivational changes. These findings indicate a specific disturbance of attentional and vigilance processes. DOI caused similar impairments at the highest dose tested (3 mg/kg s.c.); at a lower dose (1 mg/kg s.c.), however, it selectively attenuated the response speed, suggesting a selective attention deficit. (-)-Alprenolol, a non-selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and ritanserin, a preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, blocked the 8-OH-DPAT- and DOI-induced performance impairments respectively. Aniracetam ameliorated all the performance deficits, and the metabolites N-anisoyl-GABA and 2-pyrrolidinone partially mimicked the aniracetam effect in the 8-OHDPAT-induced attentional and vigilance impairments. Nefiracetam, another cognition enhancer, improved only the 8-OH-DPAT-induced impairments. Each compound tested alone had no effect on task performance. These results indicate that both serotonergic regulations, possibly via presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors and more likely via postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors, lead similarly to attention deficits.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 06/2000; 361(5):521-8. DOI:10.1007/s002100000222 · 2.36 Impact Factor