The truncated C-terminal E2 (E2-TR) protein of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type-1 is a transactivator that modulates transcription in vivo and in vitro in a manner distinct from the E2-TA and E8^E2 gene products
ABSTRACT The E2 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-1 encodes a 410 amino acid (aa) transcriptional activator, E2-TA, and collinear polypeptides--E2-TR (243 aa) and E8^E2 (196 aa). E8^E2 and E2-TR share the DNA-binding domain of E2-TA, and both have been defined as transcriptional repressors. Although purified E2-TR and E8^E2 proteins specifically bound E2 sites with similar affinities, only the E2-TR stimulated transcription. Here we show that E2-TR trans-activates E2-dependent promoters 5 to 10-fold in cooperation with cellular factors and in a dose-dependent fashion in epithelial cells and fibroblasts of animal or human origin while E2-TA activated >100-fold and the E8^E2 had no effect. However, in contrast to E2-TA, E2-TR activated transcription from a promoter-proximal position. E2-TR also partially inhibited the BPV-1 P89 or heterologous promoters whereas E8^E2 led to complete repression. Thus, the BPV-1 E2-TR modulates viral gene expression in a manner distinct from other E2 proteins.
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ABSTRACT: For many years, research on bovine papillomavirus (BPV) has contributed to the understanding of papillomavirus-induced pathology in humans and animals. The present review shows how recent studies on BPV keep providing evidence concerning key points in viral infection, such as the expression of viral proteins in lymphocytes and the occurrence of productive infections of the placenta. Studies on BPV-induced tumours also provide important information concerning the mechanisms of oncogenesis and immune evasion, as in the cases of connexin 43 down-regulation with loss of intercellular gap junctions and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) down-regulation in equine sarcoids. The biological functions of viral proteins are also being further clarified, as in the case of E2, which was recently shown to load BPV genomes into host chromosomes during the S phase, a process mediated by the ChlR1 protein. In the near future, the ongoing efforts to characterize and classify additional emerging BPV types are likely to broaden even further the possibilities for research.Archives of Virology 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1801-9 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS is useful for studying genome replication of human papillomavirus (HPVs) subtypes that belong to different phylogenetic genera. In this study, we defined the HPV18 transcription map in U2OS cells during transient replication, stable maintenance and vegetative amplification by identifying viral promoter regions, transcription polyadenylation and splicing sites during HPV18 genome replication. Mapping of the HPV18 transcription start sites in U2OS cells revealed five distinct promoter regions (P102, P520, P811, P1193 and P3000). With the exception of P3000, all of these regions have been previously identified during productive HPV18 infection. Collectively, the data suggest that U2OS cells are suitable for studying the replication and transcription properties of HPVs and to serve as a platform for conducting high-throughput drug screens to identify HPV replication inhibitors. In addition, we have identified mRNA species that are initiated from the promoter region P3000, which can encode two E2C regulator proteins that contain only the C-terminal hinge and DNA-binding and dimerization domains of E2. We show that these proteins regulate the initial amplification of HPV18 by modulating viral transcription. Moreover, we show that one of these proteins can act as a transcriptional activator of promoter P102.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e116151. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116151 · 3.53 Impact Factor