Reduced Arylsulfatase B activity in leukocytes from cystic fibrosis patients

Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago Illinois.
Pediatric Pulmonology (Impact Factor: 2.7). 03/2013; 48(3). DOI: 10.1002/ppul.22567
Source: PubMed


The enzyme Arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) removes 4-sulfate groups from chondroitin-4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and is required for the degradation of these sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). Since these GAGs accumulate in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), we investigated the activity of ARSB in leukocytes of patients with CF, to consider if reduced activity of ARSB might contribute to the pathophysiology of CF. Previous cell-based experiments had demonstrated that when the deficiency of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) was corrected in bronchial epithelial cells, the ARSB activity increased significantly. De-identified, citrated blood samples were collected from 16 children with CF and 31 control subjects, seen in the Pediatric Clinic at Rush University Medical Center. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cell (MC) populations were separated by density gradient, and blinded determinations of ARSB activity were performed using the exogenous substrate 4-methylumbilliferyl sulfate. Interleukin-6 was measured in the plasma samples by ELISA. ARSB activity was significantly less in the PMN and MC from the CF patients than controls (P < 0.0001, unpaired t-test, two-tailed). Interleukin-6 levels in plasma were significantly greater in the CF population (P < 0.001). Mean age, age range, and male:female ratio of CF patients and controls were similar, and no association of ARSB activity with age, gender, or CFTR genotype was evident. Since recombinant human ARSB is used successfully for replacement therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis VI, it may be useful to restore ARSB activity to normal levels and increase degradation of sulfated GAGs in CF patients. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    ABSTRACT: N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B; ARSB) is the enzyme that removes sulfate groups from the N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfate residue at the non-reducing end of chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). Previous studies demonstrated reduction in cell-bound high molecular weight kininogen in normal rat kidney (NRK) epithelial cells when chondroitin-4-sulfate content was reduced following overexpression of ARSB activity, and chondroitinase ABC produced similar decline in cell-bound kininogen. Reduction in the cell-bound kininogen was associated with increase in secreted bradykinin. In this report, we extend the in vitro findings to in vivo models, and present findings in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats exposed to high (SSH) and low salt (SSL) diets. In the renal tissue of the SSH rats, ARSB activity was significantly less than in the SSL rats, and chondroitin-4-sulfate and total sulfated glycosaminoglycan content were significantly greater. Disaccharide analysis confirmed marked increase in C4S disaccharides in the renal tissue of the SSH rats. In contrast, unsulfated, hyaluronan-derived disaccharides were increased in the rats on the low salt diet. In the SSH rats, with lower ARSB activity and higher C4S levels, cell-bound, high-molecular weight kininogen was greater and urinary bradykinin was lower. ARSB activity in renal tissue and NRK cells declined when exogenous chloride concentration was increased in vitro. The impact of high chloride exposure in vivo on ARSB, chondroitin-4-sulfation, and C4S-kininogen binding provides a mechanism that links dietary salt intake with bradykinin secretion and may be a factor in blood pressure regulation.
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    ABSTRACT: Arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase; ARSB) removes 4-sulfate groups from chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate and is required for their degradation. In human prostate stromal and epithelial cells, when ARSB was silenced, C4S, versican and versican promoter activity increased, and the galectin-3 that co-immunoprecipitated with C4S declined. Galectin-3 silencing inhibited the ARSB-silencing-induced increases in versican and versican promoter due to effects on the AP-1-binding site in the versican promoter. These findings demonstrate for the first time the transcriptional mechanism whereby ARSB can regulate expression of an extracellular matrix proteoglycan with C4S attachments. In addition, following ARSB silencing, C4S that co-immunoprecipitated with versican increased, whereas co-immunoprecipitated EGFR declined, total EGFR increased and exogenous EGF-induced cell proliferation increased, suggesting profound effects of ARSB on vital cell processes.Oncogene advance online publication, 18 November 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.483.
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