Cardiac MRI evaluation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Left ventricular outflow tract/aortic valve diameter ratio predicts severity of LVOT obstruction
ABSTRACT To evaluate if left ventricular outflow tract/aortic valve (LVOT/AO) diameter ratio measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is an accurate marker for LVOT obstruction in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) compared to Doppler echocardiography.
In all, 92 patients with HCM were divided into three groups based on their resting echocardiographic LVOT pressure gradient (PG): <30 mmHg at rest (nonobstructive, n = 31), <30 mmHg at rest, >30 mmHg after provocation (latent, n = 29), and >30 mmHg at rest (obstructive, n = 32). The end-systolic dimension of the LVOT on 3-chamber steady-state free precession (SSFP) CMR was divided by the end diastolic aortic valve diameter to calculate the LVOT/AO diameter ratio.
There were significant differences in the LVOT/AO diameter ratio among the three subgroups (nonobstructive 0.60 ± 0.13, latent 0.41 ± 0.16, obstructive 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.001). There was a strong linear inverse correlation between the LVOT/AO diameter ratio and the log of the LVOT pressure gradient (r = -0.84, P < 0.001). For detection of a resting gradient >30 mmHg, the LVOT/AO diameter ratio the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.97). For detection of a resting and/or provoked gradient >30 mmHg, the LVOT/AO diameter ratio area under the ROC curve was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84-0.96).
The LVOT/AO diameter ratio is an accurate, reproducible, noninvasive, and easy to use CMR marker to assess LVOT pressure gradients in patients with HCM.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a condition of varied etiology, commonly associated with poor clinical outcome. Patients are categorized on the basis of pathophysiological, clinical, radiologic, and therapeutic similarities. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is often diagnosed late in its disease course, with outcome dependent on etiology, disease severity, and response to treatment. Recent advances in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for better initial characterization and measurement of the morphologic and flow-related changes that accompany the response of the heart-lung axis to prolonged elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance and provide a reproducible, comprehensive, and noninvasive means of assessing the course of the disease and response to treatment. Typical features of PAH occur primarily as a result of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and the resultant increased right ventricular (RV) afterload. Several MRI-derived diagnostic markers have emerged, such as ventricular mass index, interventricular septal configuration, and average pulmonary artery velocity, with diagnostic accuracy similar to that of Doppler echocardiography. Furthermore, prognostic markers have been identified with independent predictive value for identification of treatment failure. Such markers include large RV end-diastolic volume index, low left ventricular end-diastolic volume index, low RV ejection fraction, and relative area change of the pulmonary trunk. MRI is ideally suited for longitudinal follow-up of patients with PAH because of its noninvasive nature and high reproducibility and is advantageous over other biomarkers in the study of PAH because of its sensitivity to change in morphologic, functional, and flow-related parameters. Further study on the role of MRI image based biomarkers in the clinical environment is warranted.Journal of thoracic imaging 03/2014; 29(2):68-79. DOI:10.1097/RTI.0000000000000079 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) peak pressure gradient is an important haemodynamic descriptor in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, secondary alterations in aortic blood flow have not been well described in these patients. Aortic flow derangement is not easily assessed by traditional imaging methods, but may provide unique characterization of this disease. In this study, we demonstrated how four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI can assess LVOT peak pressure gradients in HCM patients and also evaluated the ascending aorta (AAo) haemodynamic derangement associated with HCM. Methods and results: Obstructive (n = 12) and non-obstructive (n = 18) HCM patients were included in the study along with 10 normal volunteers. 4D flow MRI was used to visualize three-dimensional (3D) blood flow patterns within the LVOT and AAo, which were graded for the presence of helical flow as a marker of flow derangement (absent = 0, mild/moderate = 1, and severe = 2). MRI-estimated pressure gradient (ΔPMRI) was calculated from the peak systolic 3D blood velocity profile within the LVOT. There was higher grade helical flow in obstructive HCM patients compared with non-obstructive patients (P = 0.04) and volunteers (P < 0.001). Non-obstructive patients also had higher helix grade than volunteers (P = 0.002). There was a significant correlation between helical grade and increasing ΔPMRI (rS = 0.69, P < 0.001). Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve was associated with both increasing helix grade (P < 0.001) and ΔPMRI (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Ascending aorta flow derangement occurs in both obstructive and non-obstructive HCM patients and can be identified using 4D flow MRI. The degree of flow derangement correlates with LVOT gradient, SAM, and outflow tract geometry.European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 08/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jeu146 · 2.65 Impact Factor