Genetic polymorphism and prostate cancer aggressiveness: A case-only study of 1,536 GWAS and candidate SNPs in African-Americans and European-Americans
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have established a number of replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for susceptibility to prostate cancer (CaP), but it is unclear whether these susceptibility SNPs are also associated with disease aggressiveness. This study evaluates whether such replication SNPs or other candidate SNPs are associated with CaP aggressiveness in African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) men. METHODS: A 1,536 SNP panel which included 34 genome-wide association study (GWAS) replication SNPs, 38 flanking SNPs, a set of ancestry informative markers, and SNPs in candidate genes and other areas was genotyped in 1,060 AA and 1,087 EA men with incident CaP from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Tests for association were conducted using ordinal logistic regression with a log-additive genotype model and a 3-category CaP aggressiveness variable. RESULTS: Four GWAS replication SNPs (rs2660753, rs13254738, rs10090154, rs2735839) and seven flanking SNPs were associated with CaP aggressiveness (P < 0.05) in three genomic regions: One at 3p12 (EA), seven at 8q24 (5 AA, 2 EA), and three at 19q13 at the kallilkrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3) locus (two AA, one AA and EA). The KLK3 SNPs also were associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in AA (P < 0.001) but not in EA. A number of the other SNPs showed some evidence of association but none met study-wide significance levels after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Some replicated GWAS susceptibility SNPs may play a role in CaP aggressiveness. However, like susceptibility, these associations are not consistent between racial groups. Prostate © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the ancestral composition of a multi-ethnic sample collected for studies of drug addictions in New York City and Las Vegas, and to examine the reliability of self-identified ethnicity and three-generation family history data. Ancestry biographical scores for seven clusters corresponding to world major geographical regions were obtained using STRUCTURE, based on genotypes of 168 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), for a sample of 1,291 African Americans (AA), European Americans (EA), and Hispanic Americans (HA) along with data from 1,051 HGDP-CEPH 'diversity panel' as a reference. Self-identified ethnicity and family history data, obtained in an interview, were accurate in identifying the individual major ancestry in the AA and the EA samples (approximately 99% and 95%, respectively) but were not useful for the HA sample and could not predict the extent of admixture in any group. The mean proportions of the combined clusters corresponding to European and Middle Eastern populations in the AA sample, revealed by AIMs analysis, were 0.13. The HA subjects, predominantly Puerto Ricans, showed a highly variable hybrid contribution pattern of clusters corresponding to Europe (0.27), Middle East (0.27), Africa (0.20), and Central Asia (0.14). The effect of admixture on allele frequencies is demonstrated for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (118A > G, 17 C > T) of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). This study reiterates the importance of AIMs in defining ancestry, especially in admixed populations.Human genomics 07/2012; 6(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1479-7364-6-2
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis. Promoter DNA variants responsible for differential expression of key cytokines may therefore influence susceptibility to PCa. Two interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter variants, -174G>C and -6331T>C, were genotyped for association with PCa risk and survival using the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Study (RFPCS, 825 cases and 732 controls) and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS, 818 cases and 1,745 controls). Impact of genotypes on IL-6 transcriptional activity was measured using Low Density Arrays. A significant increase in IL-6 transcriptional activity in malignant compared to benign prostate tissue supports a role for IL-6 in PCa. The -174G>C variant showed no association with PCa risk, overall survival, or IL-6 transcriptional activity. The -6331 C-allele was significantly associated with an increased risk in the RFPCS (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.08-1.54), but not in the MCCS. In the MCCS however, cases presenting with a CC genotype conferred a higher risk of mortality (HR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.34-3.85), which was maintained although reduced overall in the pooled analysis with RFPCS (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.10-2.54). Furthermore, we associate the minor C-allele with a significant decrease in IL-6 transcriptional activity. While our study refutes a role for IL-6 -174G>C, it is the first to implicate -6331T>C with PCa risk and poor survival. Our observation that -6331T>C has a significant impact on IL-6 transcriptional activity, calls for further investigations into the role of this variant as a novel PCa biomarker. Prostate 72:1701-1707, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 12/2012; 72(16):1701-7. DOI:10.1002/pros.22557 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore several serum and genetic-based biomarkers that may prove useful in following men being managed with active surveillance for localized prostate cancer by predicting those that either have the potential to develop, or already harbor occult high grade disease. RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing evidence that serum biomarkers human Kallikrein 2, early prostate cancer antigen, urokinase-type plasminogen activator/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-6/interleukin-6 receptor and genetic biomarkers BRCA1 and BRCA2, Phosphatase and tensin homolog, cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene and NKX3.1 may predict for aggressive high grade disease and are identifiable early in prostate carcinogenesis. SUMMARY: One of the barriers of widespread adoption of active surveillance for low risk, localized prostate cancer is the concern that some patients may harbor occult high-risk disease at diagnosis, or develop more aggressive/noncurable disease not detected by our current well established prognostic factors. This review examines several serum and genetic-based biomarkers that appear to be of value in localized prostate cancer, unlike the vast majority of more established prostate cancer biomarkers that have been validated in far more advanced disease. Although the biomarkers discussed show exciting promise, their clinical utility is unknown, and their role in the active surveillance scenario needs further study.Current opinion in urology 02/2013; 23(3). DOI:10.1097/MOU.0b013e32835f89b8 · 2.12 Impact Factor