Theoretical study of the excited-state double proton transfer in the (3-methyl-7-azaindole)-(7-azaindole) heterodimer.
ABSTRACT Excited-state double proton transfer (ESDPT) in the (3-methyl-7-azaindole)-(7-azaindole) heterodimer is theoretically investigated by the long-range corrected time-dependent density functional theory method and the complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory method. The calculated potential energy profiles exhibit a lower barrier for the concerted mechanism in the locally excited state than for the stepwise mechanism through the charge-transfer state. This result suggests that the ESDPT in the isolated heterodimer is likely to follow the former mechanism, as has been exhibited for the ESDPT in the homodimer of 7-azaindole.
- SourceAvailable from: Takao Tsuneda[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We apply the long-range correction (LC) scheme for exchange functionals of density functional theory to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and examine its efficiency in dealing with the serious problems of TDDFT, i.e., the underestimations of Rydberg excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and charge-transfer excitation energies. By calculating vertical excitation energies of typical molecules, it was found that LC-TDDFT gives accurate excitation energies, within an error of 0.5 eV, and reasonable oscillator strengths, while TDDFT employing a pure functional provides 1.5 eV lower excitation energies and two orders of magnitude lower oscillator strengths for the Rydberg excitations. It was also found that LC-TDDFT clearly reproduces the correct asymptotic behavior of the charge-transfer excitation energy of ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene dimer for the long intramolecular distance, unlike a conventional far-nucleus asymptotic correction scheme. It is, therefore, presumed that poor TDDFT results for pure functionals may be due to their lack of a long-range orbital-orbital interaction.The Journal of Chemical Physics 06/2004; 120(18):8425-33. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dynamics and mechanism of the double proton transfer reaction of the 7-azaindole dimer was investigated in solution by excitation wavelength dependence in steady-state and femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Femtosecond measurements in the UV region revealed that the dynamics of the dimer fluorescence exhibits remarkable change as the excitation wavelength was scanned from 280 to 313 nm. The fluorescence showed a biexponential decay (0.2 and 1.1 ps) with 280-nm excitation, whereas it exhibited a single exponential decay (1.1 ps) with 313-nm excitation (the red-edge of the dimer absorption). This observation clearly indicates that the 0.2-ps component is irrelevant to the proton transfer. In the visible region, we found that the tautomer fluorescence rises in accordance with the decay of the dimer fluorescence with a common time constant of 1.1 ps. This finding unambiguously denies the appearance of any intermediate species in between the dimer and tautomer excited states, indicating that the double proton transfer reaction is essentially a single-step process. We conclude that the double proton transfer of the 7-azaindole dimer in solution proceeds in the concerted manner from the lowest excited state with the 1.1-ps time constant. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, we discuss the long-lasting concerted versus step-wise controversy for the double proton transfer mechanism in solution.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(13):5285-90. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The optical absorption and luminescence spectra of 7-azaindole and its doubly hydrogen-bonded dimer were investigated as a model for the study of electronic interactions in DNA base pairs. It is demonstrated that a biprotonic phototautomerism occurs in the dimer and in suitable ethanol solvates in fluid solvents but that the phenomenon is not observed in a rigid solvent matrix. The normal violet structured fluorescence of 7-azaindole monomer becomes a broad green fluorescence in the tautomer. It is shown that spectral band interchanges, excimer formation, excited-state single-proton transfer, and proton tunneling cannot account for the luminescence change, but that the molecular exciton effect facilitates the cooperative two-proton reversible transfer. It is proposed that biprotonic phototautomerism with molecular environmental sensitivity could provide a mechanism for the initial step in ultraviolet mutagenic effects in DNA.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1969; 63(2):253-60. · 9.81 Impact Factor