¹⁸F-FDG uptake by spleen helps rapidly predict the dose level after total body irradiation in a Tibetan minipig model.
ABSTRACT To investigate whether (18)F- FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate the rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation doses after a nuclear accident.
Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomised into a control group (n = 3) and treatment groups (n = 45). (18)F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) were carried out before total body irradiation (TBI) and at 6, 24 and 72 h after receiving TBI doses ranging from 1 to 11 Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were also collected for histological examination, apoptosis and blood analysis.
Mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) of the spleen showed significant differences between the experimental and the control groups. Spleen SUV at 6 h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.97 (P < 0.01). Histological observations showed that damage to the splenic lymphocyte became more severe with an increase in the radiation dose. Moreover, apoptosis was one of the major routes of splenic lymphocyte death, which was also confirmed by flow cytometry analysis.
In the Tibetan minipig model, radiation doses have a close relationship with the (18)F-FDG uptake of the spleen. This finding suggests that (18)F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation doses.
- Clinical Nuclear Medicine 04/2005; 30(3):193-5. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A review and analysis of the dose response relationship for the probability of acute lethality from prompt or short-term exposure to ionizing radiation is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to provide recommendations concerning estimates of casualties expected from radiation accidents, the use of nuclear weapons, or possible terrorist activities. Previous work on acute ionizing radiation-induced lethality risk together with a collection of dose response relationships are analyzed and presented based on historical case data and expert opinion that have evolved from whole-body radiation therapy experience, radiation exposure accidents, nuclear weapon detonations, and animal experimentation. The nature of the data reviewed ranges from direct individual events to those offered according to collective expert opinion and consensus published as journal articles and in various technical documents and reports. The dose response relationships are expressed as two-parameter (median exposure level and slope) probability distribution models as a function of radiation exposure in terms of a free-in-air dose. Twelve different dose response relationships are presented and discussed, including the impact of some medical care.Health Physics 06/2003; 84(5):565-75. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Physicians, hospitals, and other health care facilities will assume the responsibility for aiding individuals injured by a terrorist act involving radioactive material. Scenarios have been developed for such acts that include a range of exposures resulting in few to many casualties. This consensus document was developed by the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group to provide a framework for physicians in internal medicine and the medical subspecialties to evaluate and manage large-scale radiation injuries. Individual radiation dose is assessed by determining the time to onset and severity of nausea and vomiting, decline in absolute lymphocyte count over several hours or days after exposure, and appearance of chromosome aberrations (including dicentrics and ring forms) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Documentation of clinical signs and symptoms (affecting the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, cerebrovascular, and cutaneous systems) over time is essential for triage of victims, selection of therapy, and assignment of prognosis. Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines; blood transfusion; and, in selected cases, stem-cell transplantation. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents.Annals of internal medicine 07/2004; 140(12):1037-51. · 13.98 Impact Factor