Current state-of-the-art 1.5 T and 3 T extracranial carotid contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.

Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
Neuroimaging Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.29). 05/2012; 22(2):235-57, x. DOI: 10.1016/j.nic.2012.02.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) hardware and software have improved the resolution and spatial coverage of head and neck first-pass contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiography. Despite these improvements, high-quality submillimeter-resolution 1.5 T and 3 T carotid CE MR angiography is not consistently available in the general radiology practice. This article reviews the important imaging parameters and potential pitfalls that affect carotid CE MR angiography image quality, and the dose and timing of the gadolinium-based contrast agent, and summarizes vendor-specific protocols for high-quality submillimeter-resolution carotid CE MR angiography at 1.5 and 3 T.