Article

Design of Distributed Optical-Fiber Raman Amplifiers using Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization

Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications 12/2011; 10:323-336. DOI: 10.1590/S2179-10742011000200003

ABSTRACT A novel method is presented to design the configuration of pumping lasers of Raman amplifiers using a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer. The goal is to obtain the pump laser wavelengths and powers that maximize the amplifier on-off gain, while maintaining the flatness of the gain over the used bandwidth. We used an algorithm called Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization with Crowding Distance and Roulette Wheel to generate the non-dominated solutions, considering the average on-off gain and the ripple of the amplifier over the transmission bandwidth as the objectives in the optimization process. We designed amplifiers using three, four and five pump lasers. The experimental results showed that our proposal was able to design Raman amplifiers with a gain ripple lower than 0.2 dB and with an average on-off gain around 16.7 dB, when 20 signal channels and a total pump power of 1 W were considered. Moreover, we demonstrated that it is possible to allow the decision maker to choose among many possible non-dominated solutions depending on the application requirements.

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