Article

Immature integration and segregation of emotion-related brain circuitry in young children.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94304, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 04/2012; 109(20):7941-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1120408109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The human brain undergoes protracted development, with dramatic changes in expression and regulation of emotion from childhood to adulthood. The amygdala is a brain structure that plays a pivotal role in emotion-related functions. Investigating developmental characteristics of the amygdala and associated functional circuits in children is important for understanding how emotion processing matures in the developing brain. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) are two major amygdalar nuclei that contribute to distinct functions via their unique pattern of interactions with cortical and subcortical regions. Almost nothing is currently known about the maturation of functional circuits associated with these amygdala nuclei in the developing brain. Using intrinsic connectivity analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we investigated developmental changes in functional connectivity of the BLA and CMA in twenty-four 7- to 9-y-old typically developing children compared with twenty-four 19- to 22-y-old healthy adults. Children showed significantly weaker intrinsic functional connectivity of the amygdala with subcortical, paralimbic, and limbic structures, polymodal association, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Importantly, target networks associated with the BLA and CMA exhibited greater overlap and weaker dissociation in children. In line with this finding, children showed greater intraamygdala connectivity between the BLA and CMA. Critically, these developmental differences were reproducibly identified in a second independent cohort of adults and children. Taken together, our findings point toward weak integration and segregation of amygdala circuits in young children. These immature patterns of amygdala connectivity have important implications for understanding typical and atypical development of emotion-related brain circuitry.

0 Followers
 · 
143 Views
  • Source
    Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference, Edited by Arthur W. Toga, 01/2015: pages 1027-1030; Academic Press: Elsevier.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD). However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) in the brain after 36 h of TSD.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112222. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112222 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12365 · 5.67 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
88 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014