Article

Gating properties of the P2X2a and P2X2b receptor channels: Experiments and mathematical modeling

Laboratory of Biological Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
The Journal of General Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.57). 05/2012; 139(5):333-48. DOI: 10.1085/jgp.201110716
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated P2X2 receptors exhibit two opposite activation-dependent changes, pore dilation and pore closing (desensitization), through a process that is incompletely understood. To address this issue and to clarify the roles of calcium and the C-terminal domain in gating, we combined biophysical and mathematical approaches using two splice forms of receptors: the full-size form (P2X2aR) and the shorter form missing 69 residues in the C-terminal domain (P2X2bR). Both receptors developed conductivity for N-methyl-D-glucamine within 2-6 s of ATP application. However, pore dilation was accompanied with a decrease rather than an increase in the total conductance, which temporally coincided with rapid and partial desensitization. During sustained agonist application, receptors continued to desensitize in calcium-independent and calcium-dependent modes. Calcium-independent desensitization was more pronounced in P2X2bR, and calcium-dependent desensitization was more pronounced in P2X2aR. In whole cell recording, we also observed use-dependent facilitation of desensitization of both receptors. Such behavior was accounted for by a 16-state Markov kinetic model describing ATP binding/unbinding and activation/desensitization. The model assumes that naive receptors open when two to three ATP molecules bind and undergo calcium-independent desensitization, causing a decrease in the total conductance, or pore dilation, causing a shift in the reversal potential. In calcium-containing media, receptor desensitization is facilitated and the use-dependent desensitization can be modeled by a calcium-dependent toggle switch. The experiments and the model together provide a rationale for the lack of sustained current growth in dilating P2X2Rs and show that receptors in the dilated state can also desensitize in the presence of calcium.

0 Followers
 · 
110 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allosteric modulators of ligand-gated receptor channels induce conformational changes of the entire protein that alter potencies and efficacies for orthosteric ligands, expressed as the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) and maximum current amplitude, respectively. Here, we studied the influence of allostery on channel pore dilation, an issue not previously addressed. Experiments were done using the rat P2X4 receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells and gated by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the presence and absence of ivermectin (IVM), an established positive allosteric regulator of this channel. In the absence of IVM, this channel activates and deactivates rapidly, does not show transition from open to dilated states, desensitizes completely with a moderate rate, and recovers only fractionally during washout. IVM treatment increases the efficacy of ATP to activate the channel and slows receptor desensitization during sustained ATP application and receptor deactivation after ATP washout. The rescue of the receptor from desensitization temporally coincides with pore dilation, and the dilated channel can be reactivated after washout of ATP. Experiments with vestibular and transmembrane domain receptor mutants further established that IVM has distinct effects on opening and dilation of the channel pore, the first accounting for increased peak current amplitude and the latter correlating with changes in the EC50 and kinetics of receptor deactivation. The corresponding kinetic (Markov state) model indicates that the IVM-dependent transition from open to dilated state is coupled to receptor sensitization, which rescues the receptor from desensitization and subsequent internalization. Allosterically induced sensitization of P2X4R thus provides sustained signaling during prolonged and repetitive ATP stimulation.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 06/2014; 467(4). DOI:10.1007/s00424-014-1546-7 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transcripts and/or proteins of P2X receptor (P2XR) subunits have been found in virtually all mammalian tissues. Generally more than one of the seven known P2X subunits have been identified in a given cell type. Six of the seven cloned P2X subunits can efficiently form functional homotrimeric ion channels in recombinant expression systems. This is in contrast to other ligand-gated ion channel families, such as the Cys-loop or glutamate receptors, where homomeric assemblies seem to represent the exception rather than the rule. P2XR mediated responses recorded from native tissues rarely match exactly the biophysical and pharmacological properties of heterologously expressed homomeric P2XRs. Heterotrimerization of P2X subunits is likely to account for this observed diversity. While the existence of heterotrimeric P2X2/3Rs and their role in physiological processes is well established, the composition of most other P2XR heteromers and/or the interplay between distinct trimeric receptor complexes in native tissues is not clear. After a description of P2XR assembly and the structure of the intersubunit ATP-binding site, this review summarizes the distribution of P2XR subunits in selected mammalian cell types and the biochemically and/or functionally characterized heteromeric P2XRs that have been observed upon heterologous co-expression of P2XR subunits. We further provide examples where the postulated heteromeric P2XRs have been suggested to occur in native tissues and an overview of the currently available pharmacological tools that have been used to discriminate between homo- and heteromeric P2XRs.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:250. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00250 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The vas deferens is a simple bioassay widely used to study the physiology of sympathetic neurotransmission and the pharmacodynamics of adrenergic drugs. The role of ATP as a sympathetic co-transmitter has gained increasing attention and furthered our understanding of its role in sympathetic reflexes. In addition, new information has emerged on the mechanisms underlying the storage and release of ATP. Both noradrenaline and ATP concur to elicit the tissue smooth muscle contractions following sympathetic reflexes or electrical field stimulation of the sympathetic nerve terminals. ATP and adenosine (its metabolic byproduct) are powerful presynaptic regulators of co-transmitter actions. In addition, neuropeptide Y, the third member of the sympathetic triad, is an endogenous modulator. The peptide plus ATP and/or adenosine play a significant role as sympathetic modulators of transmitter’s release. This review focuses on the physiological principles that govern sympathetic co-transmitter activity, with special interest in defining the motor role of ATP. In addition, we intended to review the recent structural biology findings related to the topology of the P2X1R based on the crystallized P2X4 receptor from Danio rerio, or the crystallized adenosine A2A receptor as a member of the G protein coupled family of receptors as prototype neuro modulators. This review also covers structural elements of ectonucleotidases, since some members are found in the vas deferens neuro-effector junction. The allosteric principles that apply to purinoceptors are also reviewed highlighting concepts derived from receptor theory at the light of the current available structural elements. Finally, we discuss clinical applications of these concepts.
    Autonomic Neuroscience 10/2014; 185. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2014.05.010 · 1.37 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from