Gating properties of the P2X2a and P2X2b receptor channels: Experiments and mathematical modeling
ABSTRACT Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated P2X2 receptors exhibit two opposite activation-dependent changes, pore dilation and pore closing (desensitization), through a process that is incompletely understood. To address this issue and to clarify the roles of calcium and the C-terminal domain in gating, we combined biophysical and mathematical approaches using two splice forms of receptors: the full-size form (P2X2aR) and the shorter form missing 69 residues in the C-terminal domain (P2X2bR). Both receptors developed conductivity for N-methyl-D-glucamine within 2-6 s of ATP application. However, pore dilation was accompanied with a decrease rather than an increase in the total conductance, which temporally coincided with rapid and partial desensitization. During sustained agonist application, receptors continued to desensitize in calcium-independent and calcium-dependent modes. Calcium-independent desensitization was more pronounced in P2X2bR, and calcium-dependent desensitization was more pronounced in P2X2aR. In whole cell recording, we also observed use-dependent facilitation of desensitization of both receptors. Such behavior was accounted for by a 16-state Markov kinetic model describing ATP binding/unbinding and activation/desensitization. The model assumes that naive receptors open when two to three ATP molecules bind and undergo calcium-independent desensitization, causing a decrease in the total conductance, or pore dilation, causing a shift in the reversal potential. In calcium-containing media, receptor desensitization is facilitated and the use-dependent desensitization can be modeled by a calcium-dependent toggle switch. The experiments and the model together provide a rationale for the lack of sustained current growth in dilating P2X2Rs and show that receptors in the dilated state can also desensitize in the presence of calcium.
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ABSTRACT: Allosteric modulators of ligand-gated receptor channels induce conformational changes of the entire protein that alter potencies and efficacies for orthosteric ligands, expressed as the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) and maximum current amplitude, respectively. Here, we studied the influence of allostery on channel pore dilation, an issue not previously addressed. Experiments were done using the rat P2X4 receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells and gated by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the presence and absence of ivermectin (IVM), an established positive allosteric regulator of this channel. In the absence of IVM, this channel activates and deactivates rapidly, does not show transition from open to dilated states, desensitizes completely with a moderate rate, and recovers only fractionally during washout. IVM treatment increases the efficacy of ATP to activate the channel and slows receptor desensitization during sustained ATP application and receptor deactivation after ATP washout. The rescue of the receptor from desensitization temporally coincides with pore dilation, and the dilated channel can be reactivated after washout of ATP. Experiments with vestibular and transmembrane domain receptor mutants further established that IVM has distinct effects on opening and dilation of the channel pore, the first accounting for increased peak current amplitude and the latter correlating with changes in the EC50 and kinetics of receptor deactivation. The corresponding kinetic (Markov state) model indicates that the IVM-dependent transition from open to dilated state is coupled to receptor sensitization, which rescues the receptor from desensitization and subsequent internalization. Allosterically induced sensitization of P2X4R thus provides sustained signaling during prolonged and repetitive ATP stimulation.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 06/2014; 467(4). DOI:10.1007/s00424-014-1546-7 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activation of P2X2 receptor channels (P2X2Rs) is characterized by a rapid current growth accompanied with a decay of current during sustained ATP application, a phenomenon known as receptor desensitization. Using, rat, mouse and human receptors, here we show that two processes contribute to receptor desensitization: bath calcium-independent and -dependent. Calcium-independent desensitization is minor and comparable during repetitive agonist application in cells expressing the full size of receptor, but is pronounced in cells expressing shorter versions of receptors, indicating a role of C terminal in control of receptor desensitization. Calcium-dependent desensitization is substantial during initial agonist application and progressively increases during repetitive agonist application in ATP- and bath calcium-concentration dependent manner. Experiments with substitution of bath Na(+) with NMDG(+), a large organic cation, indicate that receptor pore dilation is a calcium-independent process in contrast to receptor desensitization. A decrease in the driving force for calcium by changing the holding potential from -60 to +120 mV further indicates that calcium influx through the channels pore at least partially accounts for receptor desensitization. Experiments with various receptor chimeras also indicate that the transmembrane and intracellular domains of P2X2R are required for development of calcium-dependent desensitization and that decrease in the amplitude of current slows receptor desensitization. Simultaneous calcium and current recording show development of calcium-dependent desensitization without increase in global intracellular calcium concentrations. Combined with experiments with clamping intrapipette concentrations of calcium at various levels, these experiments indicate that domain calcium is sufficient to establish calcium-dependent receptor desensitization in experiments with whole-cell recordings. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology.AJP Cell Physiology 02/2015; 308(9):ajpcell.00399.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00399.2014 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vas deferens is a simple bioassay widely used to study the physiology of sympathetic neurotransmission and the pharmacodynamics of adrenergic drugs. The role of ATP as a sympathetic co-transmitter has gained increasing attention and furthered our understanding of its role in sympathetic reflexes. In addition, new information has emerged on the mechanisms underlying the storage and release of ATP. Both noradrenaline and ATP concur to elicit the tissue smooth muscle contractions following sympathetic reflexes or electrical field stimulation of the sympathetic nerve terminals. ATP and adenosine (its metabolic byproduct) are powerful presynaptic regulators of co-transmitter actions. In addition, neuropeptide Y, the third member of the sympathetic triad, is an endogenous modulator. The peptide plus ATP and/or adenosine play a significant role as sympathetic modulators of transmitter’s release. This review focuses on the physiological principles that govern sympathetic co-transmitter activity, with special interest in defining the motor role of ATP. In addition, we intended to review the recent structural biology findings related to the topology of the P2X1R based on the crystallized P2X4 receptor from Danio rerio, or the crystallized adenosine A2A receptor as a member of the G protein coupled family of receptors as prototype neuro modulators. This review also covers structural elements of ectonucleotidases, since some members are found in the vas deferens neuro-effector junction. The allosteric principles that apply to purinoceptors are also reviewed highlighting concepts derived from receptor theory at the light of the current available structural elements. Finally, we discuss clinical applications of these concepts.Autonomic Neuroscience 10/2014; 185. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2014.05.010 · 1.37 Impact Factor