Article

Dll4–Notch signaling in Flt3-independent dendritic cell development and autoimmunity in mice

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.91). 04/2012; 209(5):1011-28. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20111615
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)-Notch signaling is essential for T cell development and alternative thymic lineage decisions. How Dll4-Notch signaling affects pro-T cell fate and thymic dendritic cell (tDC) development is unknown. We found that Dll4 pharmacological blockade induces accumulation of tDCs and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) in the thymic cortex. Both genetic inactivation models and anti-Dll4 antibody (Ab) treatment promote de novo natural T(reg) cell expansion by a DC-dependent mechanism that requires major histocompatibility complex II expression on DCs. Anti-Dll4 treatment converts CD4(-)CD8(-)c-kit(+)CD44(+)CD25(-) (DN1) T cell progenitors to immature DCs that induce ex vivo differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into T(reg) cells. Induction of these tolerogenic DN1-derived tDCs and the ensuing expansion of T(reg) cells are Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) independent, occur in the context of transcriptional up-regulation of PU.1, Irf-4, Irf-8, and CSF-1, genes critical for DC differentiation, and are abrogated in thymectomized mice. Anti-Dll4 treatment fully prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) via a T(reg) cell-mediated mechanism and inhibits CD8(+) T cell pancreatic islet infiltration. Furthermore, a single injection of anti-Dll4 Ab reverses established T1D. Disease remission and recurrence are correlated with increased T(reg) cell numbers in the pancreas-draining lymph nodes. These results identify Dll4-Notch as a novel Flt3-alternative pathway important for regulating tDC-mediated T(reg) cell homeostasis and autoimmunity.

0 Followers
 · 
317 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies on human type 1 diabetes (T1D) are facilitated by the availability of animal models such as nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes, as well as a variety of genetically engineered mouse models with reduced genetic and pathogenic complexity, as compared to the spontaneous NOD model. In recent years, increasing evidence has implicated CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 in both the breakdown of self-tolerance and the restoration of immune homeostasis in T1D. In this paper, we provide an overview of currently available mouse models to study the role of Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the control of destructive β cell autoimmunity, including a novel NOD model that allows specific and temporally controlled deletion of Foxp3(+) Treg cells.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 03/2013; 2013(3):940710. DOI:10.1155/2013/940710 · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since the plasticity and the potential for re-programming cells has become widely accepted, there has been great interest in cell-based therapies. These are being applied to a range of diseases, not least ocular diseases, where it is assumed that there is a reduced risk of immune rejection although this may be more perceived than real. There are two broad classes of cell- based therapies: those aimed at restoring structure and function of specific tissues and cells; and those directed towards restoring immunological homeostasis by controlling the damaging effects of inflammatory disease. Stem cells of all types represent the first group and prototypically have been used with the aim of regenerating failing cells. In contrast, immune cells have been suggested as potential modulators of inflammation. However, there is functional overlap in these two applications, with some types of stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, demonstrating a potent immunomodulatory effect. This review summarises recent information on cell based therapies for ocular disease, with special emphasis on ocular inflammatory disease, and explores current uses, potential and limitations.
    Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2013.02.002 · 9.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coordinated function of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in vertebrates is essential to promote protective immunity and to avoid immunopathology. The Notch signalling pathway, which was originally identified as a pleiotropic mediator of cell fate in invertebrates, has recently emerged as an important regulator of immune cell development and function. Notch was initially shown to be a key determinant of cell-lineage commitment in developing lymphocytes, but it is now known to control the homeostasis of several innate cell populations. Moreover, the roles of Notch in adaptive immunity have expanded to include the regulation of T cell differentiation and function. The aim of this Review is to summarize the current status of immune regulation by Notch. A better understanding of Notch function in both innate and adaptive immunity will hopefully provide multiple avenues for therapeutic intervention in disease.
    Nature Reviews Immunology 05/2013; 13(6). DOI:10.1038/nri3445 · 33.84 Impact Factor
Show more