NMDA receptor involvement in antidepressant-like effect of pioglitazone in the forced swimming test in mice.
ABSTRACT Previously, we showed that pioglitazone exerts its antidepressant-like effect through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma receptors and demonstrated the possible involvement of calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Based upon the in vitro results, pioglitazone reduces N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated calcium currents in hippocampal neurons.
In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) on the antidepressant-like effect of pioglitazone in the forced swimming test (FST) in mice.
After the assessment of locomotor activity in the open-field test, mice were forced to swim individually and the immobility time of the last 4 min was evaluated. Pioglitazone was administered orally with doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg 4 h before FST. To assess the involvement of NMDARs in the possible antidepressant-like effect of pioglitazone, a selective glutamate receptor agonist, NMDA (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.] or 20 ng/mouse, intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]), was administered before pioglitazone (20 mg/kg). To further determine a possible role of NMDARs in this effect, a noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA, MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p. or 100 ng/mouse, i.c.v.), was coadministered with pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) 4 h prior to FST.
Pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) administered 4 h prior to FST significantly reduced the immobility time. Coadministration of the noneffective doses of pioglitazone and MK-801 revealed an antidepressant-like effect in FST. Moreover, NMDA significantly reversed the antidepressant-like effect of pioglitazone administered 4 h prior to FST.
The antidepressant-like effect of pioglitazone in the FST is mediated partly through NMDAR signaling. This study provides a new approach for the treatment of depression.
- SourceAvailable from: Angelo Oscar Rosa[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in the forced swimming test (FST). The immobility times in the FST and in the tail suspension test (TST) were reduced by zinc chloride (ZnCl(2), 30 and 10-30 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.), respectively). The doses active in the FST and TST reduced locomotor activity in an open-field. The antidepressant-like effect of ZnCl(2) in the FST was prevented by pre-treatment of animals with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), ascorbic acid, L-arginine, or S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), but not with D-arginine, administered at doses that per se produced no anti-immobility effect. The immobility time of mice treated with ZnCl(2)+MK-801 was not different from the result obtained with ZnCl(2) or MK-801 alone, but ZnCl(2)+imipramine had a greater effect in the FST than administration of either drug alone. Pre-treatment of animals with a sub-threshold dose of ZnCl(2) prevented the anti-immobility effect of MK-801, ketamine, GMP, L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), but did not alter the effect of imipramine or fluoxetine. Taken together, the results demonstrate that zinc produced an antidepressant-like effect that seems to be mediated through its interaction with NMDA receptors and the L-arginine-NO pathway.Behavioural Brain Research 10/2003; 144(1-2):87-93. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinedione derivatives are antidiabetic agents that increase the insulin sensitivity of target tissues in animal models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In vitro, thiazolidinediones promote adipocyte differentiation of preadipocyte and mesenchymal stem cell lines; however, the molecular basis for this adipogenic effect has remained unclear. Here, we report that thiazolidinediones are potent and selective activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily recently shown to function in adipogenesis. The most potent of these agents, BRL49653, binds to PPAR gamma with a Kd of approximately 40 nM. Treatment of pluripotent C3H10T1/2 stem cells with BRL49653 results in efficient differentiation to adipocytes. These data are the first demonstration of a high affinity PPAR ligand and provide strong evidence that PPAR gamma is a molecular target for the adipogenic effects of thiazolidinediones. Furthermore, these data raise the intriguing possibility that PPAR gamma is a target for the therapeutic actions of this class of compounds.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1995; 270(22):12953-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- Diabetologia 02/2008; 51(1):8-11. · 6.49 Impact Factor