Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another.
The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior-the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination.
After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N = 739) ages 18-26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed 10 months later.
Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost.
Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.
"A previous study used the health belief model to predict vaccine intentions among college-age women and also found that women's self-efficacy was one of the major predictors for HPV vaccine intent and behavior . Using the theory of planned behavior, Gerend and Shepherd  also found that key predictors for receiving HPV vaccination by young adult women included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate factors influencing commitment to human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and prior vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan.
A quota sample of 400 female college students was recruited from nine colleges in northern Taiwan during March 2013. Of these, 398 completed the self administered questionnaire which was designed based on the health promotion model.
The results showed that factors associated with prior vaccination behavior were family history of gynecologic malignancy, ever being advised to get HPV vaccination, perceived barriers of action and perceived self-efficacy. Predictors for commitment to HPV vaccination in the next 6 months were the cost of vaccination, ever being advised to get HPV vaccination, perceived self-efficacy and situational influences. Perceived self-efficacy was significantly influenced by relationship status, past receipt of a recommendation for HPV vaccination and level of knowledge about HPV.
When formulating vaccination policies, governmental or medical institutions should include these factors to promote vaccination.
"As mentioned before, they frequently overlap, or describe different aspects of the same construct, or even describe the same construct in different language (Ajzen 1998; Armitage & Conner 2000; Noar & Zimmerman 2005; Weinstein 1993; Weinstein & Rothman 2005). Given the problem of potential construct overlap, some experts have called for studies that not only pit multiple theories against each other, but also compare individual theories and models with a single theory that incorporates the most promising and robustly supported elements from among the group (Noar & Zimmerman 2005; Weinstein 1993; Weinstein & Rothman 2005; Gerend & Shepherd 2012). Extant comparative research is scarce and imperfect. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a growing consensus that results generated through multiplex genetic tests, even those produced as a part of research, should be reported to providers and patients when they are considered "actionable," that is, when they could be used to inform some potentially beneficial clinical action. However, there remains controversy over the precise criterion that should be used in identifying when a result meets this standard. In this paper, we seek to refine the concept of "actionability" by exploring one proposed use for genetic test results. We argue that genetic test results indicating that a patient is at risk for developing a chronic health condition should not be considered actionable if the only potential value of that result is to motivate patients to make changes in their health behaviors. Since the empirical research currently available on this question is equivocal, we explore relevant psychological theories of human motivation to demonstrate that current theory does not support the assumption that information about genetic risk will be motivating to most patients in their attempts to make changes in health behaviors.
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