Ccr4d is a new member of the Ccr4 (carbon catabolite repression 4) family of proteins that are implicated in the regulation of mRNA stability and translation through mRNA deadenylation. However, Ccr4d is not believed to be involved in mRNA deadenylation. Thus, its biological function and mechanistic activity remain to be determined. Here, we report that Ccr4d is broadly expressed in various normal tissues, and the expression of Ccr4d is markedly down-regulated during cell cycle progression. We showed that Ccr4d inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest at G(1) phase. Our experiments further revealed that Ccr4d regulates the expression of p21 in a p53-independent manner. Mechanistic studies indicated that Ccr4d strongly bound to the 3'-UTR of p21 mRNA, leading to the stabilization of p21 mRNA. Interestingly, we found that the expression of Ccr4d is down-regulated in various tumor tissues. Collectively, our data indicate that Ccr4d functions as an anti-proliferating protein through the induction of cell cycle arrest via a p21-dependent and p53-independent pathway and suggest that Ccr4d might have an important role in carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PARN, Nocturnin and Angel are three of the multiple deadenylases that have been described in eukaryotic cells. While each of these enzymes appear to target poly(A) tails for shortening and influence RNA gene expression levels and quality control, the enzymes differ in terms of enzymatic mechanisms, regulation and biological impact. The goal of this review is to provide an in depth biochemical and biological perspective of the PARN, Nocturnin and Angel deadenylases. Understanding the shared and unique roles of these enzymes in cell biology will provide important insights into numerous aspects of the post-transcriptional control of gene expression.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.