Despite recent evidence of the cancer-promoting role of adipose tissue-derived progenitor and differentiated cells, the use of lipotransfer for tissue/organ reconstruction after surgical removal of cancer is increasing worldwide. Here we discuss in a multidisciplinary fashion the preclinical data connecting obesity, adipose cells and cancer progression, as well as the clinical data concerning safety of lipotransfer procedures in cancer patients. A roadmap towards a more rationale use of lipotransfer in oncology is urgently needed and should include preclinical studies to dissect the roles of different adipose tissue-derived cells, the evaluation of drugs currently candidate to inhibit the interaction between adipose and tumor cells, and carefully designed clinical trials to investigate the safety of lipotransfer procedures in cancer patients.
"Through paracrine secretion of a broad selection of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, ADSCs have been shown to have antiapoptotic, proangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiscarring effects. This potential makes them promising candidates for cellular therapy in regenerative medicine    . Unlike bone marrow, fat is abundantly available and easily accessible through liposuction and can yield significantly higher amounts of cells, which makes adiposederived cells appealing for regenerative medicine  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional breast cancer extirpation involves resection of parts of or the whole gland, resulting in asymmetry and disfiguration. Given the unsatisfactory aesthetic outcomes, patients often desire postmastectomy reconstructive procedures. Autologous fat grafting has been proposed for reconstructive purposes for decades to restore form and anatomy after mastectomy. Fat has the inherent advantage of being autologous tissue and the most natural-appearing filler, but given its inconsistent engraftment and retention rates, it lacks reliability. Implementation of autologous fat grafts with cellular adjuncts, such as multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), has shown promising results. However, it is pertinent and critical to question whether these cells could promote any residual tumor cells to proliferate, differentiate, or metastasize or even induce de novo carcinogenesis. Thus far, preclinical and clinical study findings are discordant. A trend towards potential promotion of both breast cancer growth and invasion by ADSCs found in basic science studies was indeed not confirmed in clinical trials. Whether experimental findings eventually correlate with or will be predictive of clinical outcomes remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to concisely review current experimental findings on the interaction of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer, mainly focusing on ADSCs as a promising tool for regenerative medicine, and discuss the implications in clinical translation.
Stem cell International 05/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/120949 · 2.81 Impact Factor
"-standing imbalance between energy intake and expenditure that leads to the accumulation of fat in various adipose tissues and organs. It is caused by either genetic or environmental factors (Belsing and Rasmusson 2004; Galic et al. 2009; Bertolini et al. 2012; Dubnov et al. 2003; Phan-Hug et al. 2012). It is currently proposed that the environmental factors play major roles by influencing the genetic susceptibility to development of obesity (Rosmond and Bjorntorp 2000; Lavie et al. 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a complex metabolic disease of excessive fat accumulation. It is a worldwide epidemic affecting billions of people. Current pharmacological treatment of obesity remains limited and ineffective due to systemic drug toxicity and undesirable side effects. The current epidemic raises a serious need for development of safer drugs to treat obesity. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery system for administering pharmaceutical compound to achieve therapeutic effects is currently an exciting field in cancer treatment. Drug delivery involves either modification of drug release profile, absorption, distribution and/or elimination, for the benefit of improving drug efficacy and safety. Therefore, nanotechnology holds promise in the treatment of diseases including obesity. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalised with different biomolecules have been successfully used as drug delivery, labelling and imaging tools in biomedical research. In this study, the binding-specificity and targeting ability of adipose homing peptide (AHP)-functionalised GNPs (AHP-GNPs) were evaluated using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Caco-2 cells and rats fed either chow or a high-fat diet were treated with either unfunctionalised GNPs or AHP-GNPs. Cellular uptake of GNPs was detected in cells treated with AHP-GNPs and not those treated with GNPs alone. Binding of AHP to cells was both temperature- and concentration-dependent. Compared to rats treated with GNPs alone, treatment of obese rats with AHP-GNPs resulted in the targeted delivery of the GNPs to the white adipose tissue (WAT). This paper reports the successful targeting of AHP-functionalised GNPs to WAT of obese rats.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research 02/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1007/s11051-015-2904-x · 2.18 Impact Factor
"Collectively, these cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) (Karnoub et al, 2007) deposit extracellular matrix responsible for desmoplasia, stimulate vascularisation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition, as well as mute the antitumour immune response. These effects are executed by angiogenic, immunosuppressive, antiapoptotic and mitogenic factors secreted by CAF (Bertolini et al, 2012). While bone marrow-derived leucocytes functionally contribute to the tumour microenvironment, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) appear to be the predominant progenitors of CAF (Karnoub et al, 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several recent papers have generated new hope about the use of white adipose tissue (WAT)-derived progenitor cells for soft tissue reconstruction in a variety of diseases including breast cancer (BC), a procedure that is increasingly used worldwide. We revised the available literature about WAT cells and BC. In the BC field, we believe that the hype for the exciting results in terms of WAT progenitor cell engraftment and tissue augmentation should be tempered when considering the recent and abundant preclinical studies, indicating that WAT progenitors may promote BC growth and metastasis. White adipose tissue progenitors can contribute to tumour vessels, pericytes and adipocytes, and were found to stimulate local and metastatic BC progression in several murine models. Moreover, there are clinical retrospective data showing a significant increase in the local recurrence frequency in patients with intraepithelial neoplasia who received a lipofilling procedure for breast reconstruction compared with controls. Retrospective and prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate in depth the safety of this procedure in BC. Preclinical models should be used to find mechanisms able to inhibit the tumour-promoting activity of WAT progenitors while sparing their tissue reconstruction potential.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 13 January 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.657 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 01/2015; 112(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.657 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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