A review of the clinical utility of INR to monitor and guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to orally anticoagulated patients.

Section for Transfusion Medicine, Capital Region Blood Bank, Rigshospitalet University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark. .
Thrombosis Journal (Impact Factor: 1.31). 04/2012; 10(1):5. DOI: 10.1186/1477-9560-10-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The number of patients treated with oral anticoagulation (OAC) is increasing and these patients are monitored by International Normalized Ratio (INR). Bleeding complications are common and we speculate if this is related to the limitation of INR only reflecting the initiation steps of the haemostatic process. The objective of the present review was to reassess the evidence for using INR as a tool to guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) to OAC patients. A Medline and Cochrane database search was conducted using the following keywords: prothrombin complex concentrate, reversal of oral anticoagulation and international normalized ratio (INR). Thirty-three articles were contracted and a total of ten studies were eligible after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria encompassing only 339 patients. No consensus regarding optimal target INR value to aim for when reversing OAC was found. In three of the studies it was reported that patients reaching their target INR continued to bleed, whereas three studies reviewed reported good haemostatic response also in patients that did not reach their target INR. The present review found limited evidence for the usefulness of INR as a tool to monitor and guide reversal of OAC induced coagulopathy in patients with PCC, which is expected given that it is a plasma-based assay only reflecting a limited part of the haemostatic process.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To discuss current trends and challenges in the use of procoagulants for treating bleeding caused by use of oral anticoagulants.DATA SOURCES:Literature searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), Google, and Medscape were conducted in February 2013. There were no date limitations. Search terms included anticoagulation agents, anticoagulation reversal, anticoagulation reversal agents, apixaban, clinical studies, dabigatran, 3-factor PCCs, 4-factor PCCs, FEIBA, fresh frozen plasma, human studies, pharmacology, prescribing information, rFVIIa, rivaroxaban, vitamin K, and warfarin.DATA SYNTHESIS:Warfarin has been the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of primary and secondary thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular disorders such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Three oral anticoagulants have recently become available in the US: a direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate, and 2 direct factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Reversal strategies for anticoagulant-associated bleeding are well established for warfarin; however, strategies to stop bleeding in a patient who has taken one of the newer anticoagulants are less clear. In the US, agents available for oral anticoagulant reversal include activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC), 3-factor PCCs, and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). Few studies have evaluated the 3-factor PCCs, and current evidence for APCC and rFVIIa as reversal agents for dabigatran and rivaroxaban is based primarily on laboratory or animal studies, or on small studies in healthy humans and case reports.CONCLUSIONS:Patients contemplating using the new oral anticoagulants should be informed about specific clinical situations that could pose a bleeding risk such as the need for emergency surgery because no reliable antidote is available to stop the bleeding, which could prove fatal.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 05/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to determine laboratory parameters predicting complications and/or failure in flap surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-seven patients undergoing reconstructive surgery with cutaneous free and pedicled flaps were included. Blood samples were taken 2 days before surgery and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after. Parameters associated with thrombophilia, bleeding disorders, and wound healing were determined. RESULTS: In 45 (77%) of 57 patients no complications occurred. Bleeding (9%) and venous thrombosis of the flaps (9%) led in 18% of the cases to surgical revisions. Activated protein C resistance showed a significant (P < .05) cluster in cases with venous thrombosis, whereas it was absent in all other cases. Fibrinogen, factor VIII:C, von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity, and VWF antigen were significantly (P < .05) higher in patients with venous thrombosis compared with all other patients. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory parameters of thrombosis and bleeding appear to be associated with complications in flap surgery.
    Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. 12/2012;

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014