Corticospinal tract mapping in children with ruptured arteriovenous malformations using functionally guided diffusion-tensor imaging.
ABSTRACT Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can lead to distortion or reorganization of functional brain anatomy, making localization of eloquent white matter tracts challenging. To improve the accuracy of corticospinal tract (CST) mapping, recent studies have examined the use of functional imaging techniques to help localize cortical motor activations and use these as seed points to reconstruct CSTs using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). The authors examined the role of pretreatment functionally guided DTI CST mapping in 3 children with ruptured AVMs. In 2 patients, magnetoencephalography motor activations were adjacent to the nidus and/or hemorrhagic cavity. However, in 1 child, functional MRI motor activations were detected in both hemispheres, suggestive of partial transfer of cortical motor function. In all children, quantitative analysis showed that fractional anisotropy values and fiber density indices were reduced in the CSTs of the hemisphere harboring the AVM compared with the unaffected side. In 2 children, CST caliber was slightly diminished, corresponding to no motor deficit in 1 patient and a temporary motor deficit in the other. In contrast, 1 child demonstrated marked reduction and displacement of the CSTs, correlating with severe motor deficit. Preoperative motor tractography data were loaded onto the intraoperative neuronavigation platform to guide complete resection of the AVM in 2 cases without permanent neurological deficits. These preliminary results confirm the feasibility of CST mapping in children with ruptured AVMs using functionally guided DTI tractography. Prospective studies are needed to assess the full value of this technique in the risk stratification, prognosis, and multimodality management of pediatric AVMs.
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ABSTRACT: White matter tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging has become a well-accepted non-invasive tool for exploring the white matter architecture of the human brain in vivo. There exist two main key obstacles for reconstructing white matter fibers: firstly, the implementation and application of a suitable tracking algorithm, which is capable of reconstructing anatomically complex fascicular pathways correctly, as, e.g., areas of fiber crossing or branching; secondly, the definition of an appropriate tracking seed area for starting the reconstruction process. Large intersubject, anatomical variations make it difficult to define tracking seed areas based on reliable anatomical landmarks. An accurate definition of seed regions for the reconstruction of a specific neuronal pathway becomes even more challenging in patients suffering from space occupying pathological processes as, e.g., tumors due to the displacement of the tissue and the distortion of anatomical landmarks around the lesion. To resolve the first problem, an advanced tracking algorithm, called advanced fast marching, was applied in this study. The second challenge was overcome by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to perform fMRI-guided accurate definition of appropriate seed areas for the DTI fiber tracking. In addition, the performance of the tasks was controlled by a MR-compatible power device. Application of this combined approach to eight healthy volunteers and exemplary to three tumor patients showed that it is feasible to accurately reconstruct relevant fiber tracts belonging to a specific functional system. fMRI-guided advanced DTI fiber tracking has the potential to provide accurate anatomical and functional information for a more informed therapeutic decision making.Neuroradiology 06/2009; 52(1):37-46. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The capacity of the human brain to recover from damage has been explained on the basis of plasticity, according to which remaining areas assume functions that would normally have been performed by the damaged brain. Patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving primary motor areas may present without significant neurologic deficits. We used functional MR imaging to investigate the organization of cortical motor areas in patients with AVMs. Cortical motor hand and foot representations were mapped in nine right-handed patients harboring AVMs occupying the hand (n = 6) or foot (n = 3) region of the primary motor cortex (M1). None of the patients exhibited motor deficits. Simple movements of the hand and foot were performed. In eight patients, both right and left extremities were tested; in one patient, only the hand contralateral to the AVM was examined. Localization of activation in the affected hemisphere was compared with that in the unaffected hemisphere and evaluated with respect to the normal M1 somatotopic organization shown in earlier functional MR imaging investigations. Cortical activation showed three patterns: 1) functional displacement within the affected M1 independent of the structural distortion induced by the AVM (n = 4), 2) presence of activation within the unaffected M1 ipsilateral to the moving extremity without activation in the affected M1 (n = 3), and 3) prominent activation in nonprimary motor areas without activation in either the affected or unaffected M1 (n = 2). Preliminary evidence suggests that brain AVMs lead to reorganization within the somatotopic representation in M1 and to occasional abnormal expansion into nonprimary motor areas.American Journal of Neuroradiology 10/2000; 21(8):1423-33. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We prospectively investigated the predictive value of diffusion tensor tractography for motor functional outcome in a case series of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Diffusion tensor tractography was performed in 17 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (putamen, nine patients; thalamus, seven patients; combined, one patient) within 5 days after onset. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values along the corticospinal tracts at the level of the hematoma were measured bilaterally, and the ratios of values (hematoma side/contralateral side) were determined as FA and ADC ratios, respectively. Patients were evaluated for motor function on admission and at 3 months after onset using the manual muscle test score and then divided into good (manual muscle test, 4-5) and poor (manual muscle test, 0-3) motor function groups. FA ratio measured shortly after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage correlated well with motor functional outcome at 3 months (P < 0.05) but not with motor function on admission. FA ratios in the group with good motor functional outcome were significantly higher than those in the group with poor motor functional outcome (P < 0.01). The ADC ratio did not correlate with motor function either on admission or at 3 months. All patients with an FA ratio greater than 0.8 had a good motor functional outcome. In three patients, however, motor functional outcomes were favorable even though FA ratios were not high; in these patients, ADC ratios tended to be elevated. Motor functional outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage can be predicted by measuring FA values using diffusion tensor tractography.Neurosurgery 02/2008; 62(1):97-103; discussion 103. · 2.53 Impact Factor