Article

Association Between Ovarian Hormones and Smoking Behavior in Women

Department of Psychiatry.
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.63). 04/2012; 20(4):251-7. DOI: 10.1037/a0027759
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Studies examining the association between menstrual cycle phases and smoking behavior in women have yielded mixed results. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the associations between ovarian hormones and smoking by directly measuring ovarian hormone levels and obtaining a laboratory assessment of smoking behaviors. Four hypotheses were tested: Increased smoking will be associated with (1) low absolute levels of estradiol and progesterone; (2) decreasing (i.e., dynamic changes in) estradiol and progesterone; (3) lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol; and (4) higher ratios of estradiol to progesterone. Female smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with regular menstrual cycles were recruited as part of a larger, ongoing study examining the influence of ovarian hormones on smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed 2 study visits, including a 1-hr ad lib smoking topography session, which provided a detailed assessment of smoking behavior. Both the change in hormone levels over time and the relative ratios of ovarian hormones were associated with smoking behavior, but each to a limited extent. Decreases in estradiol (r = -.21, p = .048) and decreases in progesterone (r = -.23, p = .03) were associated with increased puff intensity. Lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol were associated with a greater number of puffs (r = -.26, p = .01) and weight of cigarettes smoked (r = -.29, p = .005). The best predictors of smoking behavior were the ratio of progesterone to estradiol (z = -2.7, p = .004) and the change in estradiol and progesterone over time (z = -2.1, p = .02). This pattern of results may help to explain inconsistent findings in previous studies and suggest potential mechanisms by which hormones influence nicotine addiction.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Michael Saladin, Aug 14, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
180 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. METHODS: To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. RESULTS: The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 +/- 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 +/- 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In the menstrual and luteal phases, young Japanese women smokers increased their amount of smoking and suffered from greater craving for smoking, depressiveness and menstrual phase-associated symptoms. The amount of smoking was correlated with these symptoms, but their cause-effect relationship has not been determined yet.
    BMC Women's Health 03/2013; 13(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1472-6874-13-10 · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.
    Addictive behaviors 08/2013; 38(12):2833-2836. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.08.004 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nicotine dependence is a serious public health concern. Optimal treatment of nicotine dependence will require greater understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of smoking behaviors. A growing literature indicates sex and menstrual phase differences in responses to nicotine. The aim of this study was to assess sex and menstrual phase influences on a broad range of measures of nicotine response including subjective drug effects, cognition, physiological responses and symptoms of withdrawal, craving and affect. Using a well-established intravenous nicotine paradigm and biochemical confirmation of overnight abstinence and menstrual cycle phase, analyses were performed to compare sex (age 18-50; 115 male; 45 female) and menstrual cycle phase (29 follicular; 16 luteal) effects. Females had diminished subjective drug effects of, but greater physiological responses to, nicotine administration. Luteal phase females showed diminished subjective drug effects and better cognition relative to follicular phase women. These findings offer candidate mechanisms through which the luteal phase, wherein progesterone is dominant relative to estradiol, may be protective against vulnerability to smoking.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 December 2013. doi:10.1038/npp.2013.339.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2013; 39(6). DOI:10.1038/npp.2013.339 · 7.83 Impact Factor
Show more