Comparison of the prevalence of Salmonella infection in layer hens from commercial layer farms with high and low rodent densities.
ABSTRACT A comparison on the prevalence of Salmonella infection in layer hens from commercial layer farms with high and low rodent densities was investigated. Out of 280 laying hens sampled from three commercial layer farms with high rodent densities, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) was isolated from 20 (7.14%) hens and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (Salmonella Infantis) from three (1.07%) hens. In contrast, layer hens sampled from four commercial layer farms with low rodent densities were negative for any salmonellae. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the isolation rates of Salmonella from various organs of infected layer hens were also noted. For Salmonella Enteritidis, liver (55.0%) and the oviduct (55.0%) had the highest isolation rates while all Salmonella Infantis isolates were from the oviduct. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of BlnI-digested chromosomal DNA of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from layer hens and rodents showed similar patterns. PFGE analysis of Salmonella Infantis isolated from layer hens, rodents, eggs, and the environment yielded identical patterns. In this study, the significantly higher prevalence rate (P < 0.05) of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis in layer hens from high rodent density farms could be attributed to the high rodent population density. The persistent Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis infection inside layer houses may have been amplified by the increasing numbers in the rodent population over the years, which increased the opportunity for environment-rodent-chicken interaction and the transmission of salmonellae to chickens. Monitoring of salmonellae from rodents inside poultry premises is recommended to be an effective additional tool in the assessment of the Salmonella status of layer flocks.
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Article: Rodents, poultry and Salmonella[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rodents, poultry and Salmonella Approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic diseases that originate in animals (4). Success of industrial poultry farming has led to evolving zoonotic diseases that do not nec-essarily cause disease in avian species but may threaten public health. Mammals and wild birds are the main reservoir for Salmonella in the environ-ment. Most Salmonella infections in man can be traced back to dairy, poultry and meat products, but Salmonella can grow on just about any food. Chick-ens and eggs are particularly high risk foods (31). Poultry can acquire salmonellae from various sources including rodents. A direct relationship has been established between poultry, Salmonella and rodents where both rodents and poultry serve as reservoirs for salmonellae. Both of these warm-blooded host systems provide access for salmonellae to amplify their numbers, and subsequently a continuous infec-tion cycle is sustained through fecal-oral transmission as they coexist in the environment. Rodents carry Sal-monella bacteria in their intestinal tracts as commen-sal organisms without any obvious signs of disease. Infected rodents then shed the bacteria at up to 10 5Avian Insight-Lohmann Animal Health News Brief. 06/2013;
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the demography, management, and production practices on layer chicken farms in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia and the frequency of risk factors for Salmonella infection. The frequency of isolation of Salmonella from the layer farm environment, eggs, feeds, hatchery, and imported day-old chicks was determined using standard methods. Of the eight risk factors (farm size, age group of layers, source of day-old chicks, vaccination, sanitation practices, biosecurity measures, presence of pests, and previous disease outbreaks) for Salmonella infection investigated, farm size was the only risk factor significantly associated (P = 0.031) with the prevalence of Salmonella; 77.8% of large farms were positive for this pathogen compared with 33.3 and 26.1% of medium and small farms, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Salmonella from 35 layer farms was 40.0%. Salmonella was isolated at a significantly higher rate (P < 0.05) from farm environments than from the cloacae. Only in Trinidad and Tobago did feeds (6.5% of samples) and pooled egg contents (12.5% of samples) yield Salmonella; however, all egg samples from hotels, hatcheries, and airports in this country were negative. Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella group C, and Salmonella Kentucky were the predominant serotypes in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia, respectively. Although Salmonella infections were found in layer birds sampled, table eggs appear to pose minimal risk to consumers. However, the detection of Salmonella -contaminated farm environments and feeds cannot be ignored. Only 2.9% of the isolates belonged to Salmonella Enteritidis, a finding that may reflect the impact of changes in farm management and poultry production in the region.Journal of food protection 09/2014; 77(9):1471-1480. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC) harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human-rat encounters.PeerJ. 01/2014; 2:e533.