Draft genome sequence of Daldinia eschscholzii isolated from blood culture.
ABSTRACT Daldinia eschscholzii is an invasive endophyte that is most commonly found in plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites. We report the draft genome sequence of D. eschscholzii isolated from blood culture. The draft genome is 35,494,957 bp in length, with 42,898,665 reads, 61,449 contigs, and a G+C content of 46.8%. The genome was found to contain a high abundance of genes associated with plant cell wall degradation enzymes, mycotoxin production, and antifungal drug resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Aspergillus fumigatus is known to produce various immunosuppressive mycotoxins including gliotoxin. However, none of these mycotoxins has been confirmed as being directly related to the pathogenesis of aspergilli. Recent studies have made substantial progress in the determination of mycotoxins as virulence factors. Gliotoxin was found to be produced much faster than previously believed under certain culture conditions, such as at 37 degrees C and under high oxygen content, which is close to the environment in the host. Gliotoxin was also found to be detectable in the sera of aspergillosis mice and of aspergillosis patients. Based on these findings, it is becoming evident that gliotoxin is produced in the infected organs of patients of aspergillosis at a significant level. In addition to these known mycotoxins, A. fumigatus produces many mycotoxins apparently different from known toxins. From the aspect of gene analysis, the deletion of laeA was found to block the expression of metabolic gene clusters such as sterigmatocystin, and the gene is also expected to be related to the production of gliotoxin. The significance of mycotoxins as virulence factors will hopefully be clarified in the near future.Medical Mycology 06/2005; 43 Suppl 1:S95-9. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) is expressed at higher levels in human colorectal tumors compared with normal tissue. 15-LO-1 is expressed in cultured human colorectal cells, but only after treatment with sodium butyrate (NaBT), which also stimulates apoptosis and cell differentiation. We examined the regulation of 15-LO-1 in human tissue and the colorectal carcinoma cell lines Caco-2 and SW-480 by treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors: NaBT, trichostatin A (TSA) and HC toxin. Northern and western analysis showed that expression of 15-LO-1 was up-regulated by these HDAC inhibitors. Furthermore, HDAC inhibitors stimulated promoter activity of the 15-LO-1 gene approximately 12-to 21-fold using the -331/-23 region of the 15-LO-1 promoter, as measured with a luciferase-15-LO-1 promoter-reporter system, suggesting that 15-LO-1 is regulated at the transcriptional level by HDAC inhibitors. Histone proteins in colorectal cells were acetylated after treatment with HDAC inhibitors. Histone acetylation was also measured in human colorectal tissue and a correlation was observed between increased histone acetylation and 15-LO-1 expression. Thus, regulation of 15-LO-1 expression in colorectal tissues appears to occur by a novel and new mechanism associated with histone acetylation. Moreover, these results suggest that 15-LO-1 is a marker that reflects histone acetylation in colorectal carcinoma.Carcinogenesis 02/2001; 22(1):187-91. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins are well recognized as a cause of liver cancer, but they have additional important toxic effects. In farm and laboratory animals, chronic exposure to aflatoxins compromises immunity and interferes with protein metabolism and multiple micronutrients that are critical to health. These effects have not been widely studied in humans, but the available information indicates that at least some of the effects observed in animals also occur in humans. The prevalence and level of human exposure to aflatoxins on a global scale have been reviewed, and the resulting conclusion was that approximately 4.5 billion persons living in developing countries are chronically exposed to largely uncontrolled amounts of the toxin. A limited amount of information shows that, at least in those locations where it has been studied, the existing aflatoxin exposure results in changes in nutrition and immunity. The aflatoxin exposure and the toxic affects of aflatoxins on immunity and nutrition combine to negatively affect health factors (including HIV infection) that account for >40% of the burden of disease in developing countries where a short lifespan is prevalent. Food systems and economics render developed-country approaches to the management of aflatoxins impractical in developing-country settings, but the strategy of using food additives to protect farm animals from the toxin may also provide effective and economical new approaches to protecting human populations.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2004; 80(5):1106-22. · 6.50 Impact Factor
Draft Genome Sequence of Daldinia eschscholzii Isolated from Blood
Kee Peng Ng,aYun Fong Ngeow,aSu Mei Yew,aHamimah Hassan,aTuck Soon Soo-Hoo,aShiang Ling Na,aChai Ling Chan,a
Chee-Choong Hoh,bKok-Wei Lee,band Wai-Yan Yeeb
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,aand Codon Genomics SB, Jalan Bandar Lapan Belas, Pusat
Bandar Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysiab
Daldinia eschscholzii is an invasive endophyte that is most commonly found in plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites. We
report the draft genome sequence of D. eschscholzii isolated from blood culture. The draft genome is 35,494,957 bp in length,
novel polyketides used in immunosuppressive agents (14). De-
spite its importance as a source of many novel secondary metab-
olites, the Daldinia sp. genome sequence has not been described.
as a human pathogen or isolation from clinical specimens. In this
article, we report the successful isolation and draft genome se-
symptoms of high fever and diarrhea. This fungus, designated D.
eschscholzii UM1020, was identified by macro- and microscopic
morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based PCR
amplification using ITS1 (5=-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3=)
and ITS4 (5=-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3=) as the forward
and reverse primers, respectively.
The genomic DNA was sequenced to a 100-fold depth of cov-
erage on the Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx sequencer. From our
analysis, the estimated genome size of D. eschscholzii UM1020 is
were scaffolded into 599 large scaffolds (?1,000 bp; N50, 115 kb).
content of 46.8%. Subsequent gene prediction analysis using
GeneMark-ES version 2.3 (11) yielded a total of 11,445 predicted
protein-coding genes with 92% (10,578) longer than 100 amino
acids. The predicted gene model has an exon frequency of 2.82
exons per gene. Genome annotation on predicted genes was car-
ried out by BLAST similarity searches against Swiss-Prot, with a
total of 56.75% genes successfully annotated.
The genome is found to contain a high abundance of genes
associated with plant cell wall degradation enzymes such as xyla-
are important for survival, as an endophyte lives inside plant tis-
sues (7, 8, 10). These genes are essentially absent or in low abun-
dance in host-dependent endogenous fungi such as Candida albi-
cans (4). A plethora of genes which are essential in heavy metal,
toxic compound, and pesticide resistance were detected in D.
eschscholzii UM1020, indicating its adaptation ability and also the
origin of this species from the external environment. Genes asso-
ciated with the production of potent human carcinogens, such
as aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin, commonly produced by
Aspergillus species (5, 13) were detected, together with HC-
aldinia eschscholzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus which re-
cently has been found to produce dalesconol A and B and
toxin, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase commonly secreted
by the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus carbonum (6, 12). The
subsequent discovery of genes associated with resistance to the
antifungal drugs fluconazole, fluorocytosine, and benomyl, as
well as methotrexate resistance (1, 2, 3), present an interesting
opportunity to study molecular mechanisms that lead to anti-
fungal drug resistance.
The draft genome of D. eschscholzii UM1020 represents the
first reported genome sequence of a wood-inhabiting fungus iso-
lated from a patient’s blood culture. The understanding of the D.
eschscholzii UM1020 genome provides insights into the genetic
potential of nonhuman endogenous fungal infection and delivers
an excellent basis for the further study of human-fungal interac-
Nucleotide sequence accession number. The nucleotide se-
EMBL/GenBank under accession no. AIID00000000.
This study was supported by research grants UM.C/625/1/HIR/004 and
UM.C/HIR/MOHE/MED/02 from the University of Malaya.
writing and editing of the manuscript. T.S.S.-H., S.M.Y., C.L.C., and
S.L.N. were responsible for isolation, identification, and DNA extraction.
C.-C.H., K.-W.L., and W.-Y.Y. performed the genome sequencing and
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Candida albicans gene encoding resistance to benomyl and methotrexate
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resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:501–517.
Received 6 March 2012 Accepted 6 March 2012
Address correspondence to Kee Peng Ng, email@example.com.
Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
1535-9778/12/$12.00Eukaryotic Cellp. 703–704ec.asm.org
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the host. Med. Mycol. 43:S95–S99.
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histone acetylation in human colorectal carcinoma. Carcinogenesis 22:
an extracellular beta-glucosidase from the wood-decaying fungus Daldinia
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wood-decaying fungus Daldinia eschscholzii (Ehrenb.:Fr.) Rehm. Enzyme
Microb. Technol. 42:404–413.
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associated Daldinia eschscholzii. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133:5931–5940.