Reach and Effectiveness of a Community Program to Reduce Smoking Among Ethnic Turkish Residents in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A Quasi-Experimental Design.
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Community interventions have been considered promising strategies to reduce smoking prevalence among ethnic minority populations. We assessed the reach and effectiveness of a community program targeted at the Turkish population in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: The study had a quasi-experimental design, with 1 pretest and 1 posttest among 18- to 60-year-old Turkish residents in a district in Rotterdam (n = 388 at pretest) and in a comparison area in the city of Utrecht (n = 389 at pretest). The surveys included measures of reach and measures of effectiveness. Logistic regression analysis assessed changes in the outcome measures over time, adjusting for sex, age, and educational level. RESULTS: At posttest, more smokers (62.5%) perceived pros of quitting, and 8.2% had quit. Compared with the comparison group, in the intervention group the changes tended to be greater, but differences were not statistically significant. Of all respondents, 61.2% recognized at least 1 program component, and 23.1% participated in at least 1.Conclusions:Based on the greater changes in the intervention group (particularly regarding quit rates and pros of smoking), this community intervention can become a promising strategy. To increase potential effectiveness, participation rates need to increase and interventions should last longer and include smoking-cessation support.
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ABSTRACT: Migrant mortality does not conform to a single pattern of convergence towards prevalence rates in the host population. To understand better how migrant mortality develops, it is necessary to further investigate how the underlying behavioural determinants change following migration. We studied whether the prevalence of behavioural risk factors over two generations of Turkish and Moroccan migrants converge towards the prevalence rates in the Dutch population. From a random sample from the population register of Amsterdam, 291 Moroccan and 505 Turkish migrants, aged 15-30, participated in a structured interview that included questions on smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and weight/height. Data from the Dutch population were available from Statistics Netherlands. By calculating age-adjusted Odds Ratio's, prevalence rates among both generations were compared with prevalence rates in the host population for men and women separately. We found indications of convergence across generations towards the prevalence rates in the host population for smoking in Turkish men, for overweight in Turkish and Moroccan women and for physical inactivity in Turkish women. Alcohol consumption, however, remained low in all subgroups and did not converge towards the higher rates in the host population. In addition, we found a reversed trend among Turkish women regarding smoking: the second generation smoked significantly more, while the first generation did not differ from ethnic Dutch. In general, behavioural risk factors in two generations of non-Western migrants in the Netherlands seem to converge towards the prevalence rates in the Dutch population. However, some subgroups and risk factors showed a different pattern.European Journal of Epidemiology 02/2007; 22(3):163-72. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article provides a descriptive overview of the implementation process of the Heart, Body, and Soul program. The program objective was to test strategies to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among urban African Americans in East Baltimore. This study constitutes a prospective randomized trial among inner-city African Americans designed to improve quit rates among church attenders. A random-digit-dialing survey was conducted to establish baseline levels of self-reported cigarette smoking, examine attendant attitudes, and determine the presence of known cardiovascular risk factors among community residents of the catchment area. A similar survey was conducted among churchgoers to establish a baseline. Twenty-two churches were recruited and randomly assigned to either intensive or minimal (self-help) intervention strategies. Baseline health screenings were held in all participating churches. Innovative culturally specific smoking cessation strategies mediated through lay volunteers from participating churches were implemented in the intensive intervention churches. Pastors of all churches were directly involved in all aspects of the planning and implementation process. A total of 29 volunteer lay smoking-cessation specialists were trained and successfully implemented the intensive interventions in churches. An additional 272 church members were trained to conduct their church's health screenings. The essential component of this successful implementation process were building trust and acceptance and providing the technical support to encourage smoking-cessation strategies. This description of the project is presented to assist others involved in church-based trials in urban African American communities.Preventive Medicine 06/1993; 22(3):335-49. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To carry out a community-based research approach to determine the most effective educational interventions to reduce smoking among African-American smokers. The intervention included preparation of the community, planning and developing a model of change, and developing a community-based intervention. The study population consisted of 2,544 randomly selected adult African-American smokers residing in four sites in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the United States. The research design provided a comparison of active intervention sites with passive control sites as well as low income and moderate income areas. Major Outcome Measures: Point prevalence of non-smoking at the time of interview; Period prevalence of non-smoking at the time of interview; Period prevalence of quit attempts in the prior six months; Number of smoke-free days in the prior six months; Number of cigarettes smoked daily at the time of interview. Results: Based upon a survey eighteen months after baseline data was collected, all four measures of cigarette smoking behavior showed a strong statistically significant reduction of personal smoking behavior among those receiving active interventions versus the passive group. On the basis of process variable analysis, direct contact with the project staff in the prior six months was significantly higher in the active intervention areas. There was only a small non-significant increase in personal smoking behavior in moderate income groups as opposed to low income groups. Conclusion: An analysis of process variables strongly suggests that, within this African-American Community, "hands on" or "face to face" approaches along with mass media, mailings, and other less personal approaches were more effective in reducing personal smoking behavior than media, mailings, and other impersonal approaches alone addressed to large audiences.International Quarterly of Community Health Education 01/1997; 17(2):117-30.