Rotamer libraries and probabilities of transition between rotamers for the side chains in protein-protein binding.

Center for Bioinformatics, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, USA.
Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics (Impact Factor: 3.34). 04/2012; 80(8):2089-98. DOI: 10.1002/prot.24103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Conformational changes in the side chains are essential for protein-protein binding. Rotameric states and unbound- to-bound conformational changes in the surface residues were systematically studied on a representative set of protein complexes. The side-chain conformations were mapped onto dihedral angles space. The variable threshold algorithm was developed to cluster the dihedral angle distributions and to derive rotamers, defined as the most probable conformation in a cluster. Six rotamer libraries were generated: full surface, surface noninterface, and surface interface-each for bound and unbound states. The libraries were used to calculate the probabilities of the rotamer transitions upon binding. The stability of amino acids was quantified based on the transition maps. The noninterface residues' stability was higher than that of the interface. Long side chains with three or four dihedral angles were less stable than the shorter ones. The transitions between the rotamers at the interface occurred more frequently than on the noninterface surface. Most side chains changed conformation within the same rotamer or moved to an adjacent rotamer. The highest percentage of the transitions was observed primarily between the two most occupied rotamers. The probability of the transition between rotamers increased with the decrease of the rotamer stability. The analysis revealed characteristics of the surface side-chain conformational transitions that can be utilized in flexible docking protocols.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The protein-protein docking problem is one of the focal points of activity in computational biophysics and structural biology. The three-dimensional structure of a protein-protein complex, generally, is more difficult to determine experimentally than the structure of an individual protein. Adequate computational techniques to model protein interactions are important because of the growing number of known protein structures, particularly in the context of structural genomics. Docking offers tools for fundamental studies of protein interactions and provides a structural basis for drug design. Protein-protein docking is the prediction of the structure of the complex, given the structures of the individual proteins. In the heart of the docking methodology is the notion of steric and physicochemical complementarity at the protein-protein interface. Originally, mostly high-resolution, experimentally determined (primarily by x-ray crystallography) protein structures were considered for docking. However, more recently, the focus has been shifting toward lower-resolution modeled structures. Docking approaches have to deal with the conformational changes between unbound and bound structures, as well as the inaccuracies of the interacting modeled structures, often in a high-throughput mode needed for modeling of large networks of protein interactions. The growing number of docking developers is engaged in the community-wide assessments of predictive methodologies. The development of more powerful and adequate docking approaches is facilitated by rapidly expanding information and data resources, growing computational capabilities, and a deeper understanding of the fundamental principles of protein interactions.
    Biophysical journal. 10/2014; 107(8):1785-1793.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physicochemical description of numerous cell processes is fundamentally based on the energy landscapes of protein molecules involved. Although the whole energy landscape is difficult to reconstruct, increased attention to particular targets has provided enough structures for mapping functionally important subspaces associated with the unbound and bound protein structures. The subspace mapping produces a discrete representation of the landscape, further called energy spectrum.We compiled and characterized ensembles of bound and unbound conformations of six small proteins and explored their spectra in implicit solvent. First, the analysis of the unbound-to-bound changes points to conformational selection as the binding mechanism for four proteins. Second, results show that bound and unbound spectra often significantly overlap. Moreover, the larger the overlap the smaller the RMSD between bound and unbound conformational ensembles. Third, the center of the unbound spectrum has a higher energy than the center of the corresponding bound spectrum of the dimeric and multimeric states for most of the proteins. This suggests that the unbound states often have larger entropy than the bound states. Fourth, the exhaustively long minimization, making small intra-rotamer adjustments (all-atom RMSD≤0.7 Å), dramatically reduces the distance between the centers of the bound and unbound spectra as well as the spectra extent. It condenses unbound and bound energy levels into a thin layer at the bottom of the energy landscape with the energy spacing that varies between 0.8-4.6 and 3.5-10.5 kcal/mol for the unbound and bound states correspondingly. Finally, the analysis of protein energy fluctuations showed that protein vibrations itself can excite the inter-state transitions, including the unbound-to-bound ones.
    Protein Science 03/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Computational prediction of side-chain conformation is an important component of protein structure prediction. Accurate side-chain prediction is crucial for practical applications of protein structure models that need atomic detailed resolution such as protein and ligand design. We evaluated the accuracy of eight side-chain prediction methods in reproducing the side-chain conformations of experimentally solved structures deposited to the Protein Data Bank. Prediction accuracy was evaluated for a total of four different structural environments (buried, surface, interface, and membrane-spanning) in three different protein types (monomeric, multimeric, and membrane). Overall, the highest accuracy was observed for buried residues in monomeric and multimeric proteins. Notably, side-chains at protein interfaces and membrane-spanning regions were better predicted than surface residues even though the methods did not all use multimeric and membrane proteins for training. Thus, we conclude that the current methods are as practically useful for modeling protein docking interfaces and membrane-spanning regions as for modeling monomers. © Proteins 2014;. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 03/2014; 82(9). · 3.34 Impact Factor