Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with sickle cell disease.
ABSTRACT Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) represents the only curative treatment for sickle cell disease (SCD), being successful in around 85-90% of patients. Mortality and long-term morbidity (including infertility, gonadal failure, and chronic graft-vs.-host disease) associated with conventional approaches curtail the number of patients who undergo allo-HSCT. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cord blood is as effective as and possibly safer than bone marrow in pediatric patients with SCD. Likewise, transplant strategies based on the use of reduced-intensity regimens and the induction of mixed chimerism have been explored to decrease allo-HSCT short- and long-term complications.
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ABSTRACT: A multicenter investigation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for children with sickle cell disease was conducted that included 27 European and North American transplant centers. Fifty-nine patients who ranged in age from 3.3 to 15.9 years (median, 10.1 years) received HLA-identical sibling marrow allografts between September 1991 and April 2000. Fifty-five patients survive, and 50 survive free from sickle cell disease, with a median follow-up of 42.2 months (range, 11.8 to 115 months) after transplantation. Of the 50 patients with successful allografts, 13 developed stable mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimerism. The level of donor chimerism, measured > or =6 months after transplantation in peripheral blood, varied between 90% and 99% in 8 patients. Five additional patients had a lower proportion of donor cells (range, 11% to 74%). Among these 5 patients, hemoglobin levels varied between 11.2 and 14.2 g/dL (median, 11.3 g/dL; mean, 12.0 g/dL). In patients who had donors with a normal hemoglobin genotype (Hb), the Hb S fractions were 0%, 0%, and 7%, corresponding to donor chimerism levels of 67%, 74%, and 11%, respectively. Among patients who had donors with sickle trait, the Hb S fractions were 36% and 37%, corresponding to donor chimerism levels of 25% and 60%, respectively. Thus, allograft recipients with stable mixed chimerism had Rb S levels similar to donor levels, and only 1 patient required a red blood cell transfusion beyond 90 days posttransplantation. None of the patients have experienced painful events or other clinical complications related to sickle cell disease after transplantation. These observations strongly suggest that patients with sickle cell disease who develop persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism after transplantation experience a significant ameliorative effect.Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 01/2001; 7(12):665-73. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although sickle cell disease (SCD) has a variable clinical course, many patients develop end-organ complications that are associated with significant morbidity and early mortality. Myeloablative allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) is curative but has been historically performed only in children younger than 16 years of age. Modest modifications in the conditioning regimen and supportive care have improved outcome such that the majority of children with a suitable HLA-matched sibling donor can expect a cure from this approach. However, adult patients have been excluded from myeloablative allo-HSCT because of anticipated excess toxicity resulting from accumulated disease burden. Efforts to use nonmyeloablative transplantation strategies in adults logically followed but were initially met with largely disappointing results. Recent results, however, indicate that nonmyeloablative allo-HSCT in adult patients with SCD allows for stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism with associated full-donor erythroid engraftment and normalization of blood counts, and persistence in some without continued immunosuppression suggests immunologic tolerance. The attainment of tolerance should allow extension of these potentially curative approaches to alternative donor sources. Efforts to build on these experiences should increase the use of allo-HSCT in patients with SCD while minimizing morbidity and mortality.Blood 05/2011; 118(5):1197-207. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report outcomes after myeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors in 67 patients with sickle cell disease transplanted between 1989 and 2002. The most common indications for transplantation were stroke and recurrent vaso-occlusive crisis in 38% and 37% of patients respectively. The median age at transplantation was 10 years and 67% of patients had received >10 red blood cell transfusions before HCT. Twenty-seven percent of patients had a poor performance score at transplantation. Ninety-four percent received busulfan and cyclophosphamide-containing conditioning regimens and bone marrow was the predominant source of donor cells. Most patients achieved haematopoietic recovery and no deaths occurred during the early post-transplant period. Rates of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 10% and 22% respectively. Sixty-four of 67 patients are alive with 5-year probabilities of disease-free and overall survival of 85% and 97% respectively. Nine patients had graft failure with recovery of sickle erythropoiesis, eight of who had recurrent sickle-related events. This report confirms and extends earlier reports that HCT from HLA-matched related donors offers a very high survival rate, with few transplant-related complications and the elimination of sickle-related complications in the majority of patients who undergo this therapy.British Journal of Haematology 06/2007; 137(5):479-85. · 4.94 Impact Factor