A descriptive analysis of quality of life using patient-reported measures in major depressive disorder in a naturalistic outpatient setting.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) negatively impacts different aspects of an individual's life leading to grave impairments in quality of life (QOL). We performed a detailed analysis of the interaction between depressive symptom severity, functioning, and QOL in outpatients with MDD in order to better understand QOL impairments in MDD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 319 consecutive outpatients seeking treatment for DSM-IV-diagnosed MDD at an urban hospital-based outpatient clinic from 2005 to 2008 as part of the Cedars-Sinai Psychiatric Treatment Outcome Registry, a prospective cohort study of clinical, functioning, and patient-reported QOL outcomes in psychiatric disorders using a measurement-based care model. This model utilizes the following measures: (a) Depressive symptom severity: Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR); (b) Functioning measures: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and the Endicott Work Productivity Scale; and (c) Quality of Life measure: Quality of Life, Enjoyment, and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q). RESULTS: QOL is significantly impaired in MDD, with a mean Q-LES-Q score for this study population of 39.8 % (SD = 16.9), whereas the community norm average is 78.3 %. Regression modeling suggested that depressive symptom severity, functioning/disability, and age all significantly contributed to QOL. QIDS-SR (measuring depressive symptom severity), GAF, and SDS (measuring functioning/disability) scores accounted for 48.1, 17.4, and 13.3 % (semi-partial correlation values) of the variance in Q-LES-Q, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that impairment of QOL increases in a monotonic fashion with depressive symptom severity; however, depression symptom severity only accounted for 48.1 % of the QOL variance in our patient population. Furthermore, QOL is uniquely associated with measures of Functioning. We believe these results demonstrate the need to utilize not only Symptom Severity scales, but also Functioning and Quality of Life measures in MDD assessment, treatment, and research.
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ABSTRACT: Patient reported outcomes (PROs) of quality of life (QoL), functioning, and depressive symptom severity are important in assessing the burden of illness of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to evaluate the impact of treatment. We sought to provide a detailed analysis of PROs before and after treatment of MDD from the large Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. This analysis examines PROs before and after treatment in the second level of STAR*D. The complete data on QoL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity, were analyzed for each STAR*D level 2 treatment. PROs of QoL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity showed substantial impairments after failing a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial using citalopram (level 1). The seven therapeutic options in level 2 had positive statistically (P values) and clinically (Cohen's standardized differences [Cohen's d]) significant impact on QoL, functioning, depressive symptom severity, and reduction in calculated burden of illness. There were no statistically significant differences between the interventions. However, a substantial proportion of patients still suffered from patient-reported QoL and functioning impairment after treatment, an effect that was more pronounced in nonremitters. PROs are crucial in understanding the impact of MDD and in examining the effects of treatment interventions, both in research and clinical settings.Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 06/2014; 16(2):171-83.
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ABSTRACT: Depression is prevalent and associated with negative outcomes in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Antidepressants are used routinely to treat depression, yet no placebo-controlled trials have been published in this population to our knowledge. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release (XR) for major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymic disorder in persons with chronic SCI. Multisite, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled Project to Improve Symptoms and Mood After SCI (PRISMS) trial. All research staff conducting screening, intervention, and outcome procedures were blinded to randomization status. We screened 2536 patients from outpatient clinics at 6 SCI treatment centers in the United States and randomized 133 participants into the trial. Participants were 18 to 64 years old and at least 1 month after SCI, with MDD or dysthymic disorder. Seventy-four percent of participants were male, and participants were on average 40 years old and 11 years after SCI. Forty-seven percent had cervical injuries, 53.4% had American Spinal Injury Association injury severity A (complete injury) SCI, 24.1% had at least 2 prior MDD episodes, and 99.2% had current MDD. Common comorbidities included chronic pain (93.9%), significant anxiety (57.1%), and history of substance dependence (44.4%). Twelve-week trial of venlafaxine XR vs placebo using a flexible-dose algorithm. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D 17-item version and Maier subscale, which focuses on core depression symptoms and excludes somatic symptoms) over 12 weeks. Mixed-effects models revealed a significant difference between the venlafaxine XR and placebo groups in improvement on the Maier subscale from baseline to 12 weeks (treatment effect, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.3-2.9; P = .02) but not on the HAM-D 17-item version (treatment effect, 1.0; 95% CI, -1.4 to 3.4; P = .42). Participants receiving venlafaxine XR reported significantly less SCI-related disability on the Sheehan Disability Scale at 12 weeks compared with placebo (treatment effect, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-7.8; P = .005). Blurred vision was the only significantly more common new or worsening adverse effect in the venlafaxine XR group compared with the placebo group over 12 weeks. Venlafaxine XR was well tolerated by most patients and an effective antidepressant for decreasing core symptoms of depression and improving SCI-related disability. Further research is needed to determine the optimal treatment and measurement approaches for depression in chronic SCI. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00592384.JAMA Psychiatry 01/2015; 72(3). DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2482 · 12.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive control impairments have been identified as an underlying mechanism for rumination, a key predictor of depression. Literature suggests that cognitive control training (CCT) targeting working memory functioning can increase effectiveness of existing antidepressant treatments to reduce rumination. However, it remains unclear whether CCT can also be implemented as a preventive intervention for depression, increasing resilience. For this purpose, at-risk undergraduate students (high trait ruminators) were allocated to a CCT or active control condition, consisting of 10 online training sessions. Working memory functioning was assessed preceding and following the training and reactivity to a lab stressor was assessed directly following training. Finally, at four weeks follow-up, brooding - the maladaptive form of rumination - was re-assessed in response to a naturalistic stressor (examination period). Although we did not find direct transfer effects of CCT on working memory functioning, increase in working memory functioning following CCT was related to post-training brooding and resilience levels. Moreover, participants receiving CCT demonstrated lower stress reactivity in the lab and a decrease in brooding following a naturalistic stressor at follow-up, indicating temporal stability of our findings. These findings suggest that CCT can be considered a promising preventive intervention to reduce stress reactivity and rumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Behaviour Research and Therapy 03/2015; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2015.03.010 · 3.85 Impact Factor