Restoration of the Donor after Face Graft Procurement for Allotransplantation: Report on the Technique and Outcomes of Seven Cases
ABSTRACT After organ retrieval, restoration of the donor is a legal and ethical necessity; this is particularly true in facial transplantation. However, very few data are available regarding this procedure.
This article reviews the seven facial masks produced during seven consecutive face transplants carried out at Henri Mondor Hospital in Paris, France. The time of production, morphologic outcome, and donor family feedback were recorded. Technical tips and pitfalls are also discussed.
Recording an impression of the donor's face with alginate required less than 25 minutes and, in all cases, the production of a resin mask was completed before the surgical harvesting was finished. Although all morphologic results were satisfactory or very satisfactory, the best outcomes were achieved using a total face mask, avoiding color discrepancies. Family feedback was positive, and none of the funeral ceremonies was disturbed by the procedure.
The production of a full-face resin mask is a reliable and reproducible technique. This procedure restores donor integrity and gives a very satisfactory morphologic and aesthetic outcome.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Microvascular reconstruction for oncologic defects is a challenging and rewarding endeavor, and successful outcomes are dependent on a multitude of factors. This study represents lessons learned from a personal prospective experience with 100 consecutive free flaps.Methods:All patients’ medical records were reviewed for demographics, operative notes, and complications.Results:Overall 100 flaps were performed in 84 consecutive patients for reconstruction of breast, head and neck, trunk, and extremity defects. Nineteen patients underwent free flap breast reconstruction with 10 patients undergoing bilateral reconstruction and 2 patients receiving a bipedicle flap for reconstruction of a unilateral breast defect. Sixty-five free flaps were performed in 61 patients with 3 patients receiving 2 free flaps for reconstruction of extensive head and neck defects and 1 patient who required a second flap for partial flap loss. Trunk and extremity reconstruction was less common with 2 free flaps performed in each group. Overall, 19 patients (22.6%) developed complications and 14 required a return to the operating room. There were no flap losses in this cohort. Thorough preoperative evaluation and workup, meticulous surgical technique and intraoperative planning, and diligent postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are critical for flap success.Conclusions:As a young plastic surgeon embarking in reconstructive plastic surgery at an academic institution, the challenges and dilemmas presented in the first year of practice have been daunting but also represent opportunities for learning and improvement. Skills and knowledge acquired from time, experience, and mentors are invaluable in optimizing outcomes in microvascular free flap reconstruction.07/2013; 1(4):e27. DOI:10.1097/GOX.0b013e31829e1007This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: As of July of 2013, 27 facial vascularized composite allotransplantations have been performed. The authors developed a classification system and treatment algorithm that is practical and surgically applicable. The majority of the transplants have been described in the surgical literature and the media, and a review of the data was performed. A classification system and a treatment algorithm were designed. Skeletal defects were defined by craniofacial osteotomies and soft-tissue defects by aesthetic facial subunits. The soft-tissue defect was subdivided into the following subunits: oral-nasal (type 1), oronasal-orbital (type 2), and full facial (type 3). The bony defects were subdivided into mandibular involvement (M), Le Fort 1 (A), Le Fort 3 (B), and monobloc (C). The mechanisms of injury included trauma (n = 13), burns (n = 8), congenital deformity (n = 3), oncologic resection (n = 1), and unreported (n = 2). According to the proposed classification system: one was type 1; one was type 1-M; one was type 1-MB; two were type 2; two were type 2-B; two were type 2-MB; six were type 3; one was type 3-B; and three were type 3-MB; eight could not be classified due to a lack of data. The treatment algorithm designed a vascularized composite allotransplantation that addressed the bony and soft-tissue components. Patient selection for these complicated procedures, currently dependent on lifelong immunosuppression, is crucial to their success. The authors describe a classification system and treatment algorithm for facial defects that may be ideally suited for facial transplantation. The proposed classification and algorithm may help centers define indications and ideally improve patient outcomes. Therapeutic, V.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 02/2014; 133(2):386-97. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000437259.24069.35 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Current protocols for facial transplantation include the mandatory fabrication of an alloplastic "mask" to restore the congruency of the donor site in the setting of "open casket" burial. However, there is currently a paucity of literature describing the current state-of-the-art and available options. Methods: During this study, we identified that most of donor masks are fabricated using conventional methods of impression, molds, silicone, and/or acrylic application by an experienced anaplastologist or maxillofacial prosthetics technician. However, with the recent introduction of several enhanced computer-assisted technologies, our facial transplant team hypothesized that there were areas for improvement with respect to cost and preparation time. Results: The use of digital imaging for virtual surgical manipulation, computer-assisted planning, and prefabricated surgical cutting guides-in the setting of facial transplantation-provided us a novel opportunity for digital design and fabrication of a donor mask. The results shown here demonstrate an acceptable appearance for "open-casket" burial while maintaining donor identity after facial organ recovery. Conclusions: Several newer techniques for fabrication of facial transplant donor masks exist currently and are described within the article. These encompass digital impression, digital design, and additive manufacturing technology.Annals of Plastic Surgery 06/2014; 72(6):720-4. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0000000000000189 · 1.46 Impact Factor