Development of Leprosy in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis During Treatment with Etanercept: A Case Report
ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder. There is a clear association between some disease-modifying drugs used to treat RA and infection. The introduction of the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapies has improved the outcome of severe RA. The TNF-antagonism may increase susceptibility to granulomatous pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Histoplasma capsulatum.
We report the case of a 37-year-old woman with RA receiving an anti-TNF agent, who developed a rash on her back and both legs, which was finally diagnosed as tuberculoid leprosy.
This is the first case of leprosy due to anti-TNF therapy reported in Europe.
Clinicians should be aware of this and other types of atypical and serious infections that patients may suffer from when treated with anti-TNF agents.
- SourceAvailable from: Victoria Lynn Anderson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with deficiency in the interferon gamma receptor (IFN-γR) are unable to respond properly to IFN-γ and develop severe infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). IFN-γ and IFN-α are known to signal through STAT1 and activate many downstream effector genes in common. Therefore, we added IFN-α for treatment of patients with disseminated mycobacterial disease in an effort to complement their IFN-γ signaling defect. We treated four patients with IFN-γR deficiency with adjunctive IFN-α therapy in addition to best available antimicrobial therapy, with or without IFN-γ, depending on the defect. During IFN-α treatment, ex vivo induction of IFN target genes was detected. In addition, IFN-α driven gene expression in patients' cells and mycobacteria induced cytokine response were observed in vitro. Clinical responses varied in these patients. IFN-α therapy was associated with either improvement or stabilization of disease. In no case was disease exacerbated. In patients with profoundly impaired IFN-γ signaling who have refractory infections, IFN-α may have adjunctive anti-mycobacterial effects.Journal of Clinical Immunology 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10875-013-9882-5 · 2.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Granulomatous diseases have a varied etiology that includes autoimmune, infectious, idiopathic, and hereditary causes. The unifying factor in these diseases is the formation of granulomas, which histologically are mononuclear inflammatory cells or macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes. Granulomatous diseases often have systemic manifestations that affect organs throughout the body. Granulomatous diseases with head and neck manifestations include granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Behçet disease, chronic granulomatous disease, and sarcoidosis. Infectious causes include tuberculosis, cat-scratch disease, syphilis, leprosy, actinomycosis, rhinoscleroma, and fungal infections. In the head and neck, granulomatous disease may affect the orbits, sinonasal cavities, salivary glands, aerodigestive tract, temporal bone, or skull base. Imaging findings include sinonasal opacification, ocular and other soft-tissue masses, osseous erosion, airway narrowing, lymphadenopathy, and salivary gland infiltration. Vascular involvement may also be evident, with displacement, narrowing, or occlusion of arteries and veins. Some radiologic findings of granulomatous processes have a considerable overlap with findings of malignancy, and a radiologic differential diagnosis inclusive of both is critical to avoid incorrect clinical treatment. Without the benefit of a prior clinical diagnosis, laboratory findings, or suggestive clinical signs and symptoms, granulomatous diseases may be difficult to differentiate radiologically. Although individual granulomatous diseases may have overlapping findings at imaging, certain radiologic findings should prompt the inclusion of granulomatous diseases in the differential diagnosis, thus facilitating appropriate clinical management. ©RSNA, 2014.Radiographics 09/2014; 34(5):1240-1256. DOI:10.1148/rg.345130068 · 2.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the past three decades has undergone a paradigm shift from symptomatic relief to a "treat-to-target" approach. This has been possible through use of various conventional and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) which target disease pathogenesis at a molecular level. Cost and infection risk preclude regular use of biologics in resource-constrained settings. In the recent years, evidence has emerged that combination therapy with conventional DMARDs is not inferior to biologics in the management of RA and is a feasible cost-effective option.03/2015; 6(2):278-83. DOI:10.5312/wjo.v6.i2.278