A pantropic canine coronavirus genetically related to the prototype isolate CB/05

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 04/2012; 159(1-2):239-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We report the genetic and biological characterisation of a novel pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV), strain 450/07, which caused the death of a 60-day-old miniature pinscher. At the genetic level, this virus was strictly related to the prototype strain CB/05, but displayed some unique features. After experimental infection with the new pantropic isolate, most inoculated dogs showed diarrhoea and acute lymphopenia. Gross lesions and histological changes were mainly evident in the gut and lymphoid tissues, although some animals showed remarkable changed also in parenchymatous organs. The viral RNA was detected in the faeces and/or internal organs of most pups. These findings seem to indicate that strain 450/07 is able to spread to internal organs (mainly lymphoid tissues), causing lymphopenia but inducing a mild disease.

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    • "This is the first report of pantropic CCoV in dogs from Latin America. Fecal samples and several organs from three dogs affected with gastroenteritis were positive for CCoV, corroborating the data published previously (Decaro et al., 2012; Zicola et al., 2012). Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV strains showed that these were similar to those found in other countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection.
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    ABSTRACT: Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5′ end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains.
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize canine coronavirus (CCoV) circulating in diarrheic puppies in Brazil, 250 fecal samples collected between 2006 and 2012 were tested. By using RT-PCR to partially amplify the M gene, CCoV RNA was detected in 30 samples. Sequence analysis of the M protein grouped eight strains with CCoV-I and another 19 with CCoV-II prototypes. To genotype/subtype the CCoV strains and assess the occurrence of single or multiple CCoV infections, RT-PCR of the S gene was performed, and 25/30 CCoV-positive strains amplified with one or two primer pairs. For 17/25 samples, single infections were detected as follows: six CCoV-I, nine CCoV-IIa and two CCoV-IIb. Eight samples were positive for more than one genotype/subtype as follows: seven CCoV-I/IIa and one CCoV-I/IIb. Sequence analysis revealed that the CCoV-I and IIa strains shared high genetic similarity to each other and to the prototypes. The Brazilian strains of CCoV-IIb displayed an aminoacid insertion that was also described in CCoV-IIb-UCD-1 and TGEV strains. Among the 25 CCoV-positive puppies, five had a fatal outcome, all but one of which were cases of mixed infection. The current study is the first reported molecular characterization of CCoV-I, IIa and IIb strains in Brazil.
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