Fetal male gender and the benefits of treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT We evaluated whether improvements in pregnancy outcomes after treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus differed in magnitude on the basis of fetal gender.
This is a secondary analysis of a masked randomized controlled trial of treatment for mild gestational diabetes mellitus. The results included preeclampsia or gestational hypertension, birthweight, neonatal fat mass, and composite adverse outcomes for both neonate (preterm birth, small for gestational age, or neonatal intensive care unit admission) and mother (labor induction, cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, or gestational hypertension). After stratification according to fetal gender, the interaction of gender with treatment status was estimated for these outcomes.
Of the 469 pregnancies with male fetuses, 244 pregnancies were assigned randomly to treatment, and 225 pregnancies were assigned randomly to routine care. Of the 463 pregnancies with female fetuses, 233 pregnancies were assigned randomly to treatment, and 230 pregnancies were assigned randomly to routine care. The interaction of gender with treatment status was significant for fat mass (P = .04) and birthweight percentile (P = .02). Among women who were assigned to the treatment group, male offspring were significantly more likely to have both a lower birthweight percentile (50.7 ± 29.2 vs 62.5 ± 30.2 percentile; P < .0001) and less neonatal fat mass (487 ± 229.6 g vs 416.6 ± 172.8 g; P = .0005,) whereas these differences were not significant among female offspring. There was no interaction between fetal gender and treatment group with regard to other outcomes.
The magnitude of the reduction of a newborn's birthweight percentile and neonatal fat mass that were related to the treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus appears greater for male neonates.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) have been isolated from male and female rat aorta and studied to assess their susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress. Interestingly, a gender difference, in terms of reactive oxygen species production, was detected in both basal and irradiated VSMC. Namely, VSMC from male rats were more susceptible to radiation-induced stress and easier underwent apoptosis in comparison to cells from female rats. Conversely, the latter, in the same experimental conditions, clearly displayed signs of premature senescence. These results indicate that a sort of "gender memory" can be conserved in VMSC in primary culture.FEBS Letters 04/2008; 582(5):635-42. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors studied the importance of gender on the consequences of mild posttraumatic hypothermia following parasagittal fluid-percussion (F-P) brain injury in rats. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain temperature was maintained at normothermia (37 degrees C) or reduced to 33 degrees C for 4 h starting 30 min after the insult followed by a 1.5-h slow rewarming period. Animals (n = 48) were allowed to survive for 3 days before quantitative histopathological and immunocytochemical examination. As previously reported, contusion volume in normothermic animals (37 degrees C) was smaller (P < 0.05) in intact females compared to males. In addition, numbers of NeuN-positive cortical neurons were greater in females versus males after TBI. Posttraumatic hypothermia significantly reduced overall contusion volume in males (P < 0.05), while not significantly reducing contusion volume in females. Likewise, hypothermia protected against the loss of cortical neurons in males but had no effect in females. Ovariectomized females showed contusion volumes and neuronal cell counts comparable to those seen in males as well as a significant reduction in contusion volumes and greater neuronal counts following posttraumatic hypothermia. These data are the first to demonstrate that posttraumatic hypothermia (4 h) does not affect short-term histopathological outcomes in female rats. Potential mechanisms underlying this gender difference are discussed. Finally, these experimental findings may have important implications in terms of clinical trials using therapeutic hypothermia targeting patients with central nervous system (CNS) injury.Experimental Neurology 01/2004; 184(2):1017-26. · 4.65 Impact Factor