Bioequivalence study of two losartan tablet formulations with special emphasis on cardiac safety.
ABSTRACT To study the bioequivalence of Losartan Potassium Tablets 50 mg manufactured by Micro Labs Ltd. India to Cozaar® Tablets 50 mg, manufactured by Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd., UK in normal healthy adult subjects under fasting condition along with the comparative safety evaluation of both treatments.
The in vitro dissolution studies were carried out on 12 units each of test and reference products using the paddle method and dissolution media like water, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid with pH 1.2, pH 4.5 acetate buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. An open label, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover bioequivalence study with a washout period of 7 days was conducted in 60 healthy Indian male subjects. Serial blood samples were collected after drug administration in each study period. Plasma concentrations of losartan and losartan acid were determined using a validated LC-MS-MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan and losartan acid were determined using a non compartmental model. Occurrence of adverse events, change in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and QT interval from the baseline to 3.50 h post dose were studied and compared between the two treatments as safety parameters.
The in vitro study proved the essential similarity of both the formulations as evident from the similarity factor of > 50% in all the dissolution media. The ratios for geometric least square means and 90% confidence intervals were within the acceptance criteria of 80% to 125% for log transformed C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) for losartan. No statistically significant difference between the two treatments was observed for either of the safety parameters.
The test product Losartan Potassium tablets 50 mg manufactured by Micro Labs Limited, India was bioequivalent to Cozaar® tablets 50 mg, manufactured by Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd., UK in terms of rate and extent of absorption. Both treatments were well tolerated and had similar non significant effect on the safety parameters.
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ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan potassium and its active carboxylic acid metabolite EXP3174 were characterized in 18 healthy male subjects after administration of intravenous losartan, intravenous EXP3174, and oral losartan. In these subjects, the average plasma clearance of losartan was 610 ml/min, and the volume of distribution was 34 L. Renal clearance (70 ml/min) accounted for 12% of plasma clearance. Terminal half-life was 2.1 hours. In contrast, the average plasma clearance of EXP3174 was 47 ml/min, and its volume of distribution was 10 L. Renal clearance was 26 ml/min, which accounted for 55% of plasma clearance; terminal half-life was 6.3 hours. After oral administration of losartan, peak concentrations of losartan were reached in 1 hour. Peak concentrations of EXP3174 were reached in 3 1/2 hours. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve of EXP3174 was about four times that of losartan. The oral bioavailability of losartan tablets was 33%. The low bioavailability was mainly attributable to first-pass metabolism. After intravenous or oral administration of losartan the conversion of losartan to the metabolite EXP3174 was 14%.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 01/1996; 58(6):641-9. DOI:10.1016/0009-9236(95)90020-9 · 7.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reliable information about the prevalence of hypertension in different world regions is essential to the development of national and international health policies for prevention and control of this condition. We aimed to pool data from different regions of the world to estimate the overall prevalence and absolute burden of hypertension in 2000, and to estimate the global burden in 2025. We searched the published literature from Jan 1, 1980, to Dec 31, 2002, using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies of retrieved articles. We included studies that reported sex-specific and age-specific prevalence of hypertension in representative population samples. All data were obtained independently by two investigators with a standardised protocol and data-collection form. Overall, 26.4% (95% CI 26.0-26.8%) of the adult population in 2000 had hypertension (26.6% of men [26.0-27.2%] and 26.1% of women [25.5-26.6%]), and 29.2% (28.8-29.7%) were projected to have this condition by 2025 (29.0% of men [28.6-29.4%] and 29.5% of women [29.1-29.9%]). The estimated total number of adults with hypertension in 2000 was 972 million (957-987 million); 333 million (329-336 million) in economically developed countries and 639 million (625-654 million) in economically developing countries. The number of adults with hypertension in 2025 was predicted to increase by about 60% to a total of 1.56 billion (1.54-1.58 billion). Hypertension is an important public-health challenge worldwide. Prevention, detection, treatment, and control of this condition should receive high priority.The Lancet 01/2005; 365(9455):217-23. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17741-1 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Use non-pharmacological measures in all hypertensive and borderline hypertensive people. Initiate antihypertensive drug therapy in people with sustained systolic blood pressures (BP) >/=160 mm Hg or sustained diastolic BP >/=100 mm Hg. Decide on treatment in people with sustained systolic BP between 140 and 159 mm Hg or sustained diastolic BP between 90 and 99 mm Hg according to the presence or absence of target organ damage, cardiovascular disease or a 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of >/=15% according to the Joint British Societies CHD risk assessment programme/risk chart. In people with diabetes mellitus, initiate antihypertensive drug therapy if systolic BP is sustained >/=140 mm Hg or diastolic BP is sustained >/=90 mm Hg. In non-diabetic hypertensive people, optimal BP treatment targets are: systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <85 mm Hg. The minimum acceptable level of control (Audit Standard) recommended is <150/<90 mm Hg. Despite best practice, these levels will be difficult to achieve in some hypertensive people. In diabetic hypertensive people, optimal BP targets are; systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <80 mm Hg. The minimum acceptable level of control (Audit Standard) recommended is <140/<90 mm Hg. Despite best practice, these levels will be difficult to achieve in some people with diabetes and hypertension. In the absence of contraindications or compelling indications for other antihypertensive agents, low dose thiazide diuretics or beta-blockers are preferred as first-line therapy for the majority of hypertensive people. In the absence of compelling indications for beta-blockade, diuretics or long acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonists are preferred to beta-blockers in older subjects. Compelling indications and contraindications for all antihypertensive drug classes are specified. For most hypertensives, a combination of antihypertensive drugs will be required to achieve the recommended targets for blood pressure control. Other drugs that reduce cardiovascular risk must also be considered. These include aspirin for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and primary prevention in treated hypertensive subjects over the age of 50 years who have a 10-year CHD risk >/=15% and in whom blood pressure is controlled to the audit standard. In accordance with existing British recommendations, statin therapy is recommended for hypertensive people with a total cholesterol >/=5 mmol/L and established vascular disease, or 10-year CHD risk >/=30% estimated from the Joint British Societies CHD risk chart. Glycaemic control should also be optimised in diabetic subjects. Specific advice is given on the management of hypertension in specific patient groups, ie, the elderly, ethnic subgroups, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease and in women (pregnancy, oral contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapy). Suggestions for the implementation and audit of these guidelines in primary care are provided.Journal of Human Hypertension 09/1999; 13(9):569-92. DOI:10.1038/sj.jhh.1000917 · 2.69 Impact Factor