The interpersonal and intrasubject diversity of human-associated microbiota in key body sites

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 05/2012; 129(5):1204-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.03.010
Source: PubMed


The human body harbors 10 to 100 trillion microbes, mainly bacteria in our gut, which greatly outnumber our own human cells. This bacterial assemblage, referred to as the human microbiota, plays a fundamental role in our well-being. Deviations from healthy microbial compositions (dysbiosis) have been linked with important human diseases, including inflammation-linked disorders, such as allergies, obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease. Characterizing the temporal variations and community membership of the healthy human microbiome is critical to accurately identify the significant deviations from normality that could be associated with disease states. However, the diversity of the human microbiome varies between body sites, between patients, and over time. Environmental differences have also been shown to play a role in shaping the human microbiome in different cultures, requiring that the healthy human microbiome be characterized across life spans, ethnicities, nationalities, cultures, and geographic locales. In this article we summarize our knowledge on the microbial composition of the 5 best-characterized body sites (gut, skin, oral, airways, and vagina), focusing on interpersonal and intrapersonal variations and our current understanding of the sources of this variation.

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Available from: Dirk Gevers, Dec 15, 2013
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    • "Le microbiote cutané est principalement dominé par les 4 phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria et Bacteroidetes en proportions relatives variables selon les sites [33] [34] [35]. Il semble que ce microbiote fasse partie des plus complexes et diversifiés du corps humain, avec des variabilités interindividuelles très élevées [13] [36] [37] [38]. Il en résulte la difficulté de définir le « core microbiome » de la peau, comme pour d'autres microbiotes [13] [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Les microbiotes bactériens colonisent les différentes cavités du corps humain et remplissent des fonctions essentielles. Ils constituent des écosystèmes complexes dont l’équilibre est constamment déplacé selon les conditions locales et environnementales. Il en résulte des variations de composition pouvant quelquefois évoluer vers des dysbioses, parfois génératrices de processus pathologiques. Les facteurs extérieurs influent particulièrement sur les microbiotes les plus exposés, tels que le microbiote cutané. Du fait des nombreuses pressions médicales et médicamenteuses, l’hôpital constitue un environnement particulier pouvant modifier les écosystèmes bactériens aussi bien à l’échelle individuelle (microbiotes des patients et des soignants) qu’à l’échelle collective (écosystèmes des services). En chirurgie notamment, les multiples pressions antibiotiques, antiseptiques et traumatiques liées à la prise en charge des patients provoquent des perturbations microbiotiques qui semblent importantes à considérer dans la physiopathologie des infections du site opératoire.
    Revue Francophone des Laboratoires 02/2015; 2015(469). DOI:10.1016/S1773-035X(15)72824-8
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    • "Almost all clinical studies with microbial therapies are carried out with people from developed countries.[789] Since, there is a variety in gut flora between different world's regions[1314] the efficacy of probiotics may be affected by different ethnic groups of patients from different countries. There is no published report about probiotics efficacy on IBS treatment in Iran yet. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Evidence has shown beneficial effects of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, there is still a lack of data in this regard. We evaluated the efficacy of a multi-strain probiotic compound on IBS symptoms and quality-of-life (QOL). Materials and Methods: Adult IBS patients (n = 132) were randomized to receive a probiotic compound containing seven bacteria species including Lactobacillus strains, Bifidobacterium strains and Streptococcus thermophiles or similar placebo, twice daily after a meal for 14 consecutive days. Improvement of IBS symptoms was assessed in categories of abdominal pain and distension and improvement of bowel habit. Improvement in patients QOL was assessed by the IBS-QOL instrument. Patients were evaluated for symptoms and QOL at baseline and then 1 month after completion of the treatment. Results: After treatment, there was a decrease in abdominal pain and distension severity in both probiotic and the placebo groups (P<0.001), but there was no difference between the two groups in this regard (P>0.05). Improvement in bowel habit was observed in 33.3% of the probiotic and 36.5% of the placebo group (P = 0.910). There was no significant difference between the two groups in QOL after the treatment (P >0.05). Conclusions: We found no beneficial effects over placebo for a 2-week treatment with the above mentioned multi-strain probiotic compound in the treatment of IBS. Further, trials are yet required before a clear conclusion in this regards.
    06/2014; 3(1):140. DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.135157
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    • "hat may affect medications in many more complex ways than the human genome variations do ( Rizkallah et al . , 2010 ) . Microbiome variations do not merely occur between individuals , but , as suggested above , can be spatial , temporal , seasonal , developmental , hormonal , dietary , or drug - dependent within the same individual ( Aziz , 2012 ; Ursell et al . , 2012 ) . Below we discuss examples of intra - individual variations that shape the microbiome struc - ture , and we demonstrate how the concept of a microbiome cloud complicates cataloguing human microbiome varia - tions , their classification into clusters or biome types , and the definition of a universal / core human microbiome ."
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a global initiative undertaken to identify and characterize the collection of human-associated microorganisms at multiple anatomic sites (skin, mouth, nose, colon, vagina), and to determine how intra-individual and inter-individual alterations in the microbiome influence human health, immunity, and different disease states. In this review article, we summarize the key findings and applications of the HMP that may impact pharmacology and personalized therapeutics. We propose a microbiome cloud model, reflecting the temporal and spatial uncertainty of defining an individual's microbiome composition, with examples of how intra-individual variations (such as age and mode of delivery) shape the microbiome structure. Additionally, we discuss how this microbiome cloud concept explains the difficulty to define a core human microbiome and to classify individuals according to their biome types. Detailed examples are presented on microbiome changes related to colorectal cancer, antibiotic administration, and pharmacomicrobiomics, or drug-microbiome interactions, highlighting how an improved understanding of the human microbiome, and alterations thereof, may lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents, the modification of antibiotic policies and implementation, and improved health outcomes. Finally, the prospects of a collaborative computational microbiome research initiative in Africa are discussed.
    Omics: a journal of integrative biology 05/2014; 18(7). DOI:10.1089/omi.2014.0018 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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