Selected heavy metals versus antioxidant parameters in bull seminal plasma - A comparative study
ABSTRACT To investigate the effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) content on basic motility characteristics (motility, progressive motility) and selected antioxidant parameters (total antioxidant status - TAS, superoxide dismutase - SOD, albumin - ALB) in the bovine seminal plasma semen samples were collected from breeding bulls and used in the study. Motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) system. Subsequently, the samples were centrifuged and fractions of seminal plasma were collected. Pb and Cd concentrations were determined by the voltametric method (ASV), antioxidant parameters were analyzed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry using commercial kits. The analysis showed that the average concentrations of the trace elements were 0.57 ± 0.01 μg/mL for Pb and 0.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL for Cd. The correlation analysis revealed that both heavy metals were negatively correlated with motility (r = -0.777; P < 0.001 for Pb and r = -0.786; P < 0.001 for Cd), progressive motility (r = -0.763; P < 0.001 for Pb and r = -0.792; P < 0.001 for Cd), TAS (r = -0.375; p > 0.05 and r = -0.334; P > 0.05, respectively), SOD (r = -0.746; P < 0.001 and r = -0.537; P < 0.05, respectively) as well as with ALB (r = -0.609; P < 0.01 and r = -0.699; P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover the samples were categorized in three quality groups (Excellent, Good, Medium) according to their motility values. The lowest Pb and Cd concentrations but the best antioxidant characteristics were found in samples of excellent quality, medium quality samples were described by the highest Pb and Cd concentration and the worst antioxidant power. This study demonstrates that Pb and Cd are serious toxic elements, which are able to increase the risk of oxidative stress development and a subsequent decrease of semen quality.
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- "Numerous animal and human studies have reported a significant association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and various types of male infertility ,       and it is now widely agreed that oxidative stress (OS) significantly contributes to sperm structural or functional abnormalities including protein deterioration, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO).   Oxidative damage to the male germ cell is in turn linked to motility loss, alterations of membrane fusion events such as the acrosome reaction and sperm–oocyte fusion,  which may lead to poor fertilization rates or impaired embryonic development. "
ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol and phytoestrogen exhibiting cardioprotective, anticancer, antibacterial and vasorelaxing properties. It is also a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and chelating agent. This study was designed to determine the efficiency of RES to reverse the ROS-mediated impairment of the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bovine spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were washed out of fresh bovine semen, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to RES treatment (5, 10, 25 and 50 μmol L(-1)) in the presence or absence of a pro-oxidant, i.e., ferrous ascorbate (FeAA; 150 μmol L(-1) FeSO4 and 750 μmol L(-1) ascorbic acid) during a 6-h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the in vitro experiments in order to investigate the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FeAA treatment led to a reduced sperm motility (P < 0.001) and viability (P < 0.001), decreased the antioxidant parameters of the samples (P < 0.001 in case of SOD; P < 0.01 with respect to CAT; P < 0.05 in relation to GSH) but increased the superoxide production (P < 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001). RES supplementation resulted in a preservation of the spermatozoa vitality and antioxidant characteristics (P < 0.001 in case of SOD; P < 0.01 with respect to 25-50 μmol L(-1) RES and P < 0.05 in relation to 10 μmol L(-1) RES; P < 0.05 in case of GSH), with 50 μmol L(-1) RES proving to be the most effective RES concentration. Our results suggest that RES possesses significant antioxidant properties that may prevent the deleterious effects caused by ROS to spermatozoa, and preserve the fertilization potential of male reproductive cells.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1071153 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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- "Bovine sperm with 0.23–0.57 μg/ml of Pb have shown a reduced fertilization capacity and an altered prooxidant– antioxidant balance, as evidenced in the decrease in GSH and total antioxidant status (TAS), and the increase in lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (Tvrda et al., 2012, 2013). Humans with elevated levels of Cd and Pb in sperm have also shown reduced fertility accompanied by higher MDA, protein carbonyls and ROS levels, and lower GSH levels and GSH-s-transferase (GST) activities, suggesting an oxidative damage of these heavy metals on lipids and proteins (Kiziler et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Vertebrates are constantly exposed to a diffuse pollution of heavy metals existing in the environment, but in some cases, the proximity to emission sources like mining activity increases the risk of developing adverse effects of these pollutants. Here we have studied lead (Pb) levels in spermatozoa and testis, and chromatin damage and levels of endogenous antioxidant activity in spermatozoa of red deer (Cervus elaphus) from a Pb mining area (n=37) and a control area (n=26). Deer from the Pb-polluted area showed higher Pb levels in testis parenchyma, epididymal cauda and spermatozoa, lower values of acrosome integrity, higher activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and higher values of DNA fragmentation (X-DFI) and stainability (HDS) in sperm than in the control area. These results indicate that mining pollution can produce damage on chromatin and membrane spermatozoa in wildlife. The study of chromatin fragmentation has not been studied before in spermatozoa of wildlife species, and the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) has been revealed as a successful tool for this purpose in species in which the amount of sperm that can be collected is very limited.Science of The Total Environment 10/2014; 505C:32-38. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.087 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) content on basic motility characteristics (motility-MOT, progressive motility-PROG) as well as selected markers of the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (catalase-CAT, glutathione-GSH, malondialdehyde-MDA) in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Twenty five semen samples were collected from breeding bulls and used in the study. Motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) system. The samples were centrifuged, fractions of seminal plasma and spermatozoa were separated, lysates were prepared from the sperm cell fractions. Pb and Cd concentrations were determined by the voltametric method (ASV), antioxidants and MDA were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The analysis showed that the average concentration of Pb in the seminal plasma was 0.23 ± 0.02 μg/mL, while its amount in the sperm cells was significantly higher (0.41 ± 0.07 μg/mL; P < 0.05). The average Cd content in bovine seminal fractions was similar and non-significant: 0.09 ± 0.01 μg/mL in the seminal plasma and 0.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL in spermatozoa (P > 0.05). The correlation analysis revealed that both heavy metals were significantly negatively correlated with MOT and PROG (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) as well as GSH (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) but significantly positively associated with MDA as the marker of lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05; P < 0.01). Moreover the samples were categorized in three quality groups (Excellent, Good, Moderate) according to their motility values. The lowest Pb, Cd and MDA concentrations but the best antioxidant characteristics were found in samples of the best quality, moderate quality samples exhibited the highest Pb, Cd and MDA content together with the worst antioxidant capacity. This study demonstrates that Pb and Cd are serious toxic elements, which are able to increase the risk of seminal oxidative stress development and a subsequent decrease of male fertility.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 08/2013; 48(10):1292-300. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2013.777243 · 1.16 Impact Factor