Selected heavy metals versus antioxidant parameters in bull seminal plasma - a comparative study.
ABSTRACT To investigate the effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) content on basic motility characteristics (motility, progressive motility) and selected antioxidant parameters (total antioxidant status - TAS, superoxide dismutase - SOD, albumin - ALB) in the bovine seminal plasma semen samples were collected from breeding bulls and used in the study. Motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) system. Subsequently, the samples were centrifuged and fractions of seminal plasma were collected. Pb and Cd concentrations were determined by the voltametric method (ASV), antioxidant parameters were analyzed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry using commercial kits. The analysis showed that the average concentrations of the trace elements were 0.57 ± 0.01 μg/mL for Pb and 0.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL for Cd. The correlation analysis revealed that both heavy metals were negatively correlated with motility (r = -0.777; P < 0.001 for Pb and r = -0.786; P < 0.001 for Cd), progressive motility (r = -0.763; P < 0.001 for Pb and r = -0.792; P < 0.001 for Cd), TAS (r = -0.375; p > 0.05 and r = -0.334; P > 0.05, respectively), SOD (r = -0.746; P < 0.001 and r = -0.537; P < 0.05, respectively) as well as with ALB (r = -0.609; P < 0.01 and r = -0.699; P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover the samples were categorized in three quality groups (Excellent, Good, Medium) according to their motility values. The lowest Pb and Cd concentrations but the best antioxidant characteristics were found in samples of excellent quality, medium quality samples were described by the highest Pb and Cd concentration and the worst antioxidant power. This study demonstrates that Pb and Cd are serious toxic elements, which are able to increase the risk of oxidative stress development and a subsequent decrease of semen quality.
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ABSTRACT: Lead exposure related oxidative stress has been incriminated, at least in part, to its toxic effects in different organs. The present investigation was carried out to study the ameliorative effects of antioxidant (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol or L-methionine) alone and antioxidant (alpha tocopherol) plus a conventional chelator (CaNa2 EDTA) on some of the parameters indicative of oxidative stress in the liver, kidney and brain in lead-exposed rats. Rats were given 0 (n=6, healthy controls) or 1 mg of Pb(2+)/kg b.w (n=30) as lead acetate solution in sterile normal saline ip for a period of 4 weeks. The ip injections were then withdrawn and lead exposed rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Six lead-exposed rats were given no treatment during the 5th week (Pb group) to serve as positive controls. The rest four groups received either ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol or L-methionine in the 5th week at the daily dose of 100 mg/kg b.w orally or alpha tocopherol as above plus CaNa2 EDTA at the rate of 110 mg/kg b.w twice a day ip for a period of 4 days. All the animals were sacrificed 1 day after the end of the experiment, and the liver, kidney and brain were quickly excised for the estimation of lead burden and alteration in the oxidative indices. Lead exposure for a period of 4 weeks followed by a period of 1 week to recover, resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher accumulation of lead, associated with significant (P<0.05) increases in lipid peroxide level in the liver and brain, and non-protein bound thiol contents in the brain. Changes in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in lead-exposed rats did not reach statistical (P<0.05) significance. Treatment with antioxidants alone resulted in reversal of oxidative stress without significant decline in tissue lead burden. Tissue specific changes, following lead exposure and responses to the treatment with different antioxidants were recorded in the parameters of oxidative damage viz. lipid peroxide level, antioxidant enzymes and thiol contents.Toxicology 06/2001; 162(2):81-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on granulose cells were studied. Adult female rats were treated i.p. with either lead acetate (LA) or cadmium acetate (CA) both, alone, or in combination at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg body weight on a daily basis for 15 days. Both metals were accumulated in the ovary after metal exposure. Metal exposure caused a decrease in reduced glutathione content along with elevated lipid peroxidation in all groups. Granulose cells of both cadmium as well as combination group demonstrated a maximum increase in lipid peroxides and catalase activity, along with decreased glutathione status and superoxide dismutase activities. Combined treated animals exhibited an intermediate effect in antioxidant status. However, "in vitro" exposure showed no significant change in antioxidant enzymes in all metal exposed cells. Data from the present study indicates that lead and cadmium in isolation and in combination cause oxidative stress. Lead and cadmium in combination do not show additive or synergistic effect indicating the competition between them due to similarity in electronic affinities. Present study highlights the effects of toxic metals that disturb membrane integrity of cells via ROS and thereby classifying mechanism for altered receptor binding, steroidogenesis, and hormone production.Archive für Toxikologie 04/2007; 81(3):145-50. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A total of 28 donor semen samples were used to evaluate the characteristics of laboratory variability in measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objectives of this study were to assess the interassay (same sample observed on different days by the same observers) variability; interdonor, intraobserver (replications of the same sample on the same day) variability; and interobserver (multiple observers on the same day with the same sample) variability of the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and to establish an optimal semen age and sperm concentration. Semen samples were collected from 6 healthy donors for 108 measures of ROS. ROS levels were measured by the assay using luminol as the probe. An additional assessment measured the effect of time (age of the sample) on ROS production in 12 donor samples at 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after the specimen was produced. Last, to evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on ROS production, ROS levels were measured in 10 donor sample aliquots with sperm concentrations ranging from 1 to 120 x 10(6)/mL. In the controls, the mean ROS level was 0.218 x 10(6) counted photons per minute; the interassay variability standard deviation (SD) was 0.077. The interobserver SD was 0.002 for an interobserver reliability of 97.5% (coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.9%). The intraobserver (between replication) SD was 0.001 for an intraobserver reliability of 98.7% (CV = 0.5%). The interassay SD was 0.005 for an interassay reliability of 93.8% (CV = 2.0%). There was no statistically significant interobserver, intraobserver, or interassay variation (P > .80). ROS levels decreased significantly with time; a dramatic decline in ROS production was seen in the specimens that were more than 60 minutes old (P < .001). ROS values decreased by 31% at 120 minutes and 62% at 180 minutes compared with the 60-minute-old specimens. A linear relationship was seen between the ROS levels and sperm concentration in 8 of the 10 samples analyzed (R2 = .99). Our results demonstrate that the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay for ROS measurement is both accurate and reliable when the sperm concentration is greater than 1 x 10(5)/mL and the samples are analyzed within the first hour after specimen collection.Journal of Andrology 22(4):568-74. · 2.53 Impact Factor