The Antimicrobial Efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: Characterization, in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia.
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.1). 12/2012; 17(5):4860-77. DOI: 10.3390/molecules17054860
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.


Available from: Vijayarathna Soundararajan, Jun 12, 2015
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    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 03/2015; 165. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.050 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the morphological changes on C. albicans cells were studied along with cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity result indicated that the extract is nontoxic as was clearly substantiated by a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 59.10 μg/mL. The treated cells (C. spectabilis extract) demonstrated potassium leakage of 1039 parts per million (ppm) compared to Amphotericin B (AmpB)-treated cells with a released potassium value of 1115 ppm. The effects of the extract on the cell wall proteins illustrated that there were three major types of variations in the expression of treated cell wall proteins: the presence of new proteins, the absence of proteins, and the amount of expressed protein. The activities of two enzymes, α-glucosidase and proteinase, were determined to be significantly high, thereby not fully coinciding with the properties of the antifungal reaction triggered by C. spectabilis. The morphology of C. albicans cells treated with the C. spectabilis extract showed that the cells had abnormalities and were damaged or detached within the microcolonies. Our study verifies C. spectabilis leaf extract as an effective anti-C. albicans agent.
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