α1 and α2-adrenoceptors in the medial amygdaloid nucleus modulate differently the cardiovascular responses to restraint stress in rats
ABSTRACT Medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) neurotransmission has an inhibitory influence on cardiovascular responses in rats submitted to restraint, which are characterized by both elevated blood pressure (BP) and intense heart rate (HR) increase. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of MeA adrenoceptors in the modulation of cardiovascular responses that are observed during an acute restraint. Male Wistar rats received bilateral microinjections of the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) or the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 (10, 15, and 20 nmol/nL) into the MeA, before the exposure to acute restraint. The injection of WB4101 reduced the restraint-evoked tachycardia. In contrast, the injection of RX821002 increased the tachycardia. Both drugs had no influence on BP increases observed during the acute restraint. Our findings indicate that α1 and α2-adrenoceptors in the MeA play different roles in the modulation of the HR increase evoked by restraint stress in rats. Results suggest that α1-adrenoceptors and α2-adrenoceptors mediate the MeA-related facilitatory and inhibitory influences on restraint-related HR responses, respectively.
- SourceAvailable from: Geoffrey A Head
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "MATERIALS AND METHODS Ethical Approval Experiments were approved in advance by the Alfred Medical Research Education Precinct Animal Ethics Committee and conducted in accordance with the Australian Code of Practice for Scientific Use of Animals. The study conforms to international ethical standards (Fortaleza et al., 2012). Experiments were conducted in 38 male New Zealand White rabbits (initial body weight 2.6 – 3.3 kg, age 13 – 23 weeks). "
ABSTRACT: Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) by rabbits results in increased blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) within 1 wk. Here, we determined how early this activation occurred and whether it was related to changes in cardiovascular and neural 24-h rhythms. Rabbits were meal-fed a HFD for 3 wks, then a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 wk. BP, HR, and RSNA were measured daily in the home cage via implanted telemeters. Baseline BP, HR, and RSNA over 24 h were 71 ± 1 mm Hg, 205 ± 4 beats/min and 7 ± 1 normalized units (nu). The 24-h pattern was entrained to the feeding cycle and values increased from preprandial minimum to postprandial maximum by 4 ± 1 mm Hg, 51 ± 6 beats/min, and 1.6 ± .6 nu each day. Feeding of a HFD markedly diminished the preprandial dip after 2 d (79-125% of control; p < 0.05) and this reduction lasted for 3 wks of HFD. Twenty-four-hour BP, HR, and RSNA concurrently increased by 2%, 18%, and 22%, respectively. Loss of preprandial dipping accounted for all of the BP increase and 50% of the RSNA increase over 3 wks and the 24-h rhythm became entrained to the light-dark cycle. Resumption of a NFD did not alter the BP preprandial dip. Thus, elevated BP induced by a HFD and mediated by increased sympathetic nerve activity results from a reduction in preprandial dipping, from the first day. Increased calories, glucose, insulin, and leptin may account for early changes, whereas long-term loss of dipping may be related to increased sensitivity of sympathetic pathways. (Author correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org).Chronobiology International 05/2013; 30(5). DOI:10.3109/07420528.2013.784771 · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the involvement of β-adrenoceptors in the medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) in cardiovascular responses evoked in rats submitted to an acute restraint stress. We first pretreated Wistar rats with the nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol microinjected bilaterally into the MeA (10, 15, and 20 nmol/100 nL) 10 min before exposure to acute restraint. The pretreatment with propranolol did not affect the blood pressure (BP) increase evoked by restraint. However, it increased the tachycardiac response caused by acute restraint when animals were pretreated with a dose of 15 nmol, without a significant effect on the BP response. This result indicates that β-adrenoceptors in the MeA have an inhibitory influence on restraint-evoked heart rate (HR) changes.Neuroscience 09/2012; 227. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.09.048 · 3.33 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The left and right ventricles fulfill different role in heart function. Here we compare chamber specific changes in local catecholamine concentrations; gene expression and the receptor protein amount of all three β-adrenoceptors (β-AR) in rat right heart ventricles exposed to acute (1 session) and repeated (7 sessions) immobilization stress (IMMO) vs. previously observed changes in left ventricles. Density of muscarinic receptors as main cardio-inhibitive receptors was also measured. In the right ventricles, noradrenaline and adrenaline were increased. No β1-AR changes were observed, in spite of the increased sympathetic activity. On the other hand, we have found a decrease of β2-AR gene expression (reduction to 30%) after 7 IMMO and protein (to 59%) after 1 IMMO. β3-AR gene expression was increased after 7 IMMO. Muscarinic receptor density was not changed. When comparing correlation in left and right ventricles, there was strong correlation between adrenaline and β2-AR gene expression, protein and β3-AR gene expression in the left ventricles while only correlation between adrenaline and β2-AR mRNA and protein in the right ventricles was found. Our results show that maintenance of cardiac homeostasis under stress conditions are to a great extent achieved by a balance between different receptors and also by a balanced receptor changes in left vs. right ventricles. Taken together, decrease of cardio-stimulating β2-AR represents a new important mechanism by which β2-AR contributes to the heart physiology.General Physiology and Biophysics 06/2014; 33(3). DOI:10.4149/gpb_2014002 · 0.88 Impact Factor