Mitochondrial tRNA mutations associated with deafness
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial tRNA mutations are one of the important causes of both syndromic and non-syndromic deafness. Of those, syndromic deafness-associated tRNA mutations such as tRNA(Leu(UUR)) 3243A>G are often present in heteroplasmy, while non-syndromic deafness-associated tRNA mutations including tRNA(Ser(UCN)) 7445A>G often occur in homplasmy or in high levels of heteroplasmy. These tRNA mutations are the primary mutations leading to hearing loss. However, other tRNA mutations such as tRNA(Thr) 15927G>A and tRNA(Ser(UCN)) 7444G>A may act in synergy with the primary mitochondrial DNA mutations, modulating the phenotypic manifestation of the primary mitochondrial DNA mutations. Theses tRNA mutations cause structural and functional alteration. A failure in tRNA metabolism caused by these tRNA mutations impaired mitochondrial translation and respiration, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunctions responsible for deafness. These data offer valuable information for the early diagnosis, management and treatment of maternally inherited deafness.
SourceAvailable from: Patricia M. Pereira[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in genes that encode tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA syntheases, tRNA modifying enzymes and other tRNA interacting partners are associated with neuropathies, cancer, type-II diabetes and hearing loss, but how these mutations cause disease is unclear. We have hypothesized that levels of tRNA decoding error (mistranslation) that do not fully impair embryonic development can accelerate cell degeneration through proteome instability and saturation of the proteostasis network. To test this hypothesis we have induced mistranslation in zebrafish embryos using mutant tRNAs that misincorporate Serine (Ser) at various non-cognate codon sites. Embryo viability was affected and malformations were observed, but a significant proportion of embryos survived by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) and downregulating protein biosynthesis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage and disruption of the mitochondrial network, were also observed, suggesting that mistranslation had a strong negative impact on protein synthesis rate, ER and mitochondrial homeostasis. We postulate that mistranslation promotes gradual cellular degeneration and disease through protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and genome instability.RNA Biology 08/2014; 11(8). DOI:10.4161/rna.32199 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this report, we investigated the molecular genetic mechanism underlying the deafness-associated mitochondrial tRNA(His) 12201T>C mutation. The destabilization of a highly conserved base-pairing (5A-68U) by the m.12201T>C mutation alters structure and function of tRNA(His). Using cybrids constructed by transferring mitochondria from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a Chinese family into mtDNA-less (ρ(o)) cells, we showed ∼70% decrease in the steady-state level of tRNA(His) in mutant cybrids, compared with control cybrids. The mutation changed the conformation of tRNA(His), as suggested by slower electrophoretic mobility of mutated tRNA with respect to the wild-type molecule. However, ∼60% increase in aminoacylated level of tRNA(His) was observed in mutant cells. The failure in tRNA(His) metabolism was responsible for the variable reductions in seven mtDNA-encoded polypeptides in mutant cells, ranging from 37 to 81%, with the average of ∼46% reduction, as compared with those of control cells. The impaired mitochondrial translation caused defects in respiratory capacity in mutant cells. Furthermore, marked decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ATP and membrane potential were observed in mutant cells. These mitochondrial dysfunctions caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the mutant cells. The data provide the evidence for a mitochondrial tRNA(His) mutation leading to deafness.Nucleic Acids Research 06/2014; 42(12). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku466 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract In this study, we examined the "pathogenic" role of the T10454C mutation in mitochondrial tRNA(Arg) gene in deafness expression as increasing reports provided an active role of this mutation in clinical manifestation of deafness associated 12S rRNA A1555G mutation. For this purpose, we reanalyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data containing the T10454C mutation. Moreover, we analyzed the reported "polymorphisms" of mtDNA in the proband using the phylogentic approach. To our surprise, other mutations which occurred at protein-coding genes played more important roles in resulting mitochondrial dysfunctions by using the bioinformatic tool. In addition, evolutionary conservation analysis of the T10454C mutation indicated that this mutation was not conserved between different species. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the T10454C variant may not modulate the phenotypic expression of the deafness associated A1555G mutation.Mitochondrial DNA 07/2014; DOI:10.3109/19401736.2014.933337 · 1.70 Impact Factor